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The Hand And Diseases Of The Hand
An organ, according to the anatomists' definitions, is a structure of the animal body made up of a number of different kinds of cells and tissues, which are assembled for the performance of one or some-times several functions. Thus the liver is an organ made up of glandular cells, connective tissue, reticular cells, blood vessels, bile ducts, etc.
Expectant Mothers
THE most important safeguard for the mother's future health is that she be under careful medical supervision from the time she realizes she is to become a mother until the period of delivery. This supervision is known among physicians in this country as 'prenatal care.'
Child Care
THERE is enough calcium, or lime, in the body to whitewash a pretty good sized building. It is a necessary ingredient, being found in the bones, teeth and blood. The muscles demand a certain amount of calcium in the blood for their proper action. Calcium is found in the milk of all animals, being especially necessary to growing animals on account of the requirement in developing bones and teeth.
Child Care - Old Ideas About Teething Erroneous, Says Physician
Of all the erroneous ideas about the development of the baby, more are centered around the eruption of teeth than any other one part of the subject.It is NOT true, for instance, that teething is very hard on the baby. It would be a great deal harder on the baby for the rest of its life if it did not teeth.It is NOT true that teething is a particularly dangerous time, or that the baby is liable to be sick all through the teething period.
Child Care - At What Age Should Baby Begin To Walk, Parents Ask
'When should the baby begin to walk?' Nothing, except perhaps the twin inquiry, 'When should my baby begin to talk?' gives the young parents so much concern. If the Jones baby across the street, who was born a week later, has succeeded in taking a few steps unassisted and alone, while theirs is still ignominiously crawling on all fours, the humiliation is almost more than can be borne.
Child Care - Simple Rules For Mother In Caring For New Baby
The new mother quite naturally regards her suddenly acquired responsibilities with considerable dismay. What is she going to do with this little living creature in order to keep it in the pink of condition? How is it to be fed, and how often? What is the technique of bathing it? What kind of clothes, and how many, should it wear? How long should it sleep? How much air should it have?
Child Care - How Intestinal Upsets In Infants Are Treated
Babies can stand nearly anything except infection. If they are not dressed up in too many clothes, it is surprising how well they stand hot weather.Their danger in hot weather comes from the possibility of implantation of germs in their intestinal canals. The germs enter with the food, especially milk.
Child Care - Baby Easily Upset
The new baby is mostly digestive canal so it is not to be wondered at that this central mechanism easily gets upset. Some slight change in the quality of milk may cause diarrhea, with the passage of numerous watery stools but without prostration. Forcing the baby to eat or finish his bottle when he doesn't want to, may result in the same thing.
Child Care - Infant's Energy Needs Higher Than The Adult's
There is no basic difference between the diet used for the infant and the adult. The infant's diet, like the adult's, must fulfill certain requirements:(1) There must be enough of it.(2) There must be enough for growth and tissue waste.(3) There must be enough water, minerals and vitamins.(4) It must be neutral, it should have bulk and digestibility. Mother's milk satisfies all these, and for that reason mother's milk is always the ideal infant food.
Child Care - Bed-wetting
Enuresis, or bed-wetting, is a problem that arises in the development and training of a child in about one out of ten cases. One out of three or four households is, therefore, disturbed by it. It may be of all grades of severity and may cause every grade of worry to the parents. The amount that the parents worry quite as frequently determines the severity of the condition as the other way round.The child should have control of the urine in the day time by 2 years of age.
Child Care - Infant Feeding - Mother's Milk And Weaning
The best food for the new-born baby is human mother's milk and, if possible, the mother should feed the baby up to the seventh or eighth month. If this time happens to fall in the summer months, it is best not to wean the baby even then.Weaning is a gradual process, and in some instances supplementary feeding, which is partial weaning, may have to be given from the first. The question of whether to do this or not is one that calls for medical judgment, and is based largely on the question of increase in weight.
Child Care - Infant Feeding - Cow's, Goat's Milk Standard
Either cow's milk or goat's milk will probably remain as the standard which most mothers will select to give the baby at the weaning period. The animal milk should be pasteurized or, preferably, boiled for infant use. If artificial feeding is to be the main source of nutrition from birth, animal milk will have to be modified, but if a child has thrived on mother's milk for seven or eight months...
Infant Feeding-simple Formula For Newborn Baby
As should always be said at the beginning of a set of instructions for feeding the new-born baby, mother's milk is the best. But if this is impossible, a feeding mixture can be constructed on which most babies will thrive.The most modern idea is to prepare the formula for one day's feeding as follows:(1) Cow's Milk:(a) It must be clean. This is most simply accomplished by boiling. The bottles into which it is poured and the nipples should also be boiled.
Infant Feeding—Care Of Bottles, Etc.
A pint of cow's milk a day for a new-born, eight-pound baby is boiled and allowed to cool, the scum taken off, and two tablespoons of sugar and eight ounces of boiled water added.We have then 24 ounces of fluid. This should be divided into six feedings, four hours apart, and will make four ounces each.The nipples and the bottles should be boiled before the mixture is poured into the bottles.
Infant Feeding-the Kind Of Sugar Used-evaporated Milk
The first thing that is added to the milk mixture for feeding the newborn baby is sugar in some form. As we saw yesterday, cow's milk contains about half as much sugar as mother's milk, and in order to give enough nutritive value to nourish the baby and give it energy to grow, this extra amount must be added.The kind of sugar added is not of very great importance.
Newborn Infant Requires Vitamins Added To Diet
The needs of the infant so far as nutrition and growth are concerned, are fulfilled by the milk it drinks. Whether that milk be mother's milk or an artificial formula of cow's milk, sugar and water, the infant needs certain other substances in order to remain perfectly healthy. These substances are the Vitamins C and D.Mother's milk contains these substances, provided the mother's diet is rich in green vegetables and fruits, and she exposes herself to sunlight.
Young Child's Diet Must Furnish Growth, Energy
The two to five-year-old child is growing rapidly, and frequently changes and additions to his diet are advisable. He is gaining about five pounds a year in weight, and about one and one-half inches in height. He requires from his food enough material to supply him with tissue for this growth, and also from his food enough to keep him warm and to allow him to engage in the energy requiring...
Correct Diet For Child, 10, With Contents And Calories
Because malnutrition due to lack of sufficient food is one of the commonest abnormal conditions found in childhood, the following standards for a day's ration for a child 10 years old, of about 60 pounds weight, should be studied...
Proper Diet For Children To Provide Growth, Energy
Where does the body get its food? And how much does it require of each kind?Children are different from adults in this respect. They require more nourishment as measured in calories and they also require more protein in order to allow for growth, and more minerals per pound of body weight for the same reason.A child's diet should have 50 per cent of the total calories in the form of carbohydrate.
Children Suffer Most When The Diet Lacks Vitamins
Of the conditions which are due to a lack of vitamins in the food, the commonest in temperate climates are rickets and scurvy. As these are respectively due to lack of Vitamins D and C, it is an indication that these are the vitamins which are most likely to be lacking in the average dietary.Especially is this true in childhood, when lack of Vitamins C and D do most of their harm, and for that reason especial care must be used to see that in the infant's and child's diet they are deliberately introduced in the form of cod liver oil, or viosterol, or irradiated milk for Vitamin D, and of orange or tomato juice in the case of Vitamin C.
Tooth Decay In Youngsters And Its Dietetic Prevention
'A careful study of all available reliable data indicates that about 95 per cent of school children suffer from dental caries (tooth decay).' This is taken from the report of the White House Conference on Child Health and Protection.The very latest ideas about diet would indicate that a great deal of this decay could be prevented by proper dietary regulation. It used to be thought that children who ate candy were particularly liable to have tooth decay.
Things Children Swallow And Ways Of Discovery
Pins, peanut shells, paper clips, dimes, nails, pennies, thumb tacks, egg shells, watermelon seeds, buttons, small toys in the form of bicycle riders, jack stones, safety pins, open and shut—these are some of the things that have been found in the windpipes and gullets of children.How do they get in? Especially one wonders how objects of such size get in. Of course, they get in by being put first in the mouth.
How Development Progresses During First Year Of Life
Many things about a baby that are perfectly normal, nevertheless seem strange and alarm the beginning parents.Don't worry about the baby's legs being bowed. Normal babies have a slight outward curve of the legs. This is partly due to the way the baby lies—with the knees out and the soles of the feet toward each other. For this reason it looks as if the legs were more bowed than they really are.
Preparing The Child For School-Immunization
The child that has been well nourished and encouraged to exercise and play outdoors during childhood will in most cases meet the demands of school life successfully. But it must be admitted that school imposes a set of conditions on the organism which are new in its experience and frequently severely trying.The most troublesome of these is the increased chance of contagious diseases.
Preparing The Child For School—Vaccination Against Smallpox
How early should vaccination for smallpox be done? Osier's 'Text Book of Medicine,' the standard in the English language, says: 'Vaccination is usually performed between the fourth and sixth month.' Remember the sentence of Macaulay that BABES were turned into changelings. Smallpox is no respecter of persons or ages. Of 3,164 deaths in the Montreal epidemic of 1885-6, 2,717 were of children under 10 years of age. Revacinnation should be done at the age of 9 years. A person exposed to smallpox should always be revaccinated.
Preparing The Child For School-Diphtheria Prevention
The conquest of diphtheria is one of the most inspiring triumphs of modern science.Let us set up a contrast and compare what diphtheria was and is. For what it was we do not have to go back very far—only to 1890. It attacked children usually—and under five years of age. Its effects were swift and powerful. It killed nearly half of those attacked. In a few days a happy youngster, the joy of its father and mother, would wilt, turn white and succumb.
Preparing Child For School-Toxoid For Diphtheria
Even if you take no precautions, the chances of your child catching diphtheria are less than a hundredth of what they would have been in 1890.For the very good reason that there is less diphtheria to catch. And that is due to the fact that other parents have taken precautions to prevent the disease in their children.What are these precautions? The use of an immunizing substance —diphtheria toxoid—which will create a condition in the child's body by which it will immediately throw off diphtheria if exposed.
Preparing The Child For School—Vaccination Against Typhoid
We have had two indications recently that typhoid fever, for all the vaunted control of the disease which we have claimed, is still alive. The newspapers carried the report of an epidemic in Minneapolis and the U. S. Public Health Service has published a final report of its investigation of the epidemic of typhoid fever that occurred in the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey's circus...
Diphtheria Once Scourge Conquered By Doctors
If your child were entering school in September, 1890, the chances would have been about 1 to 10 that he or she would contract diphtheria before the year was over.Once contracted in 1890 the chances would have been about even that the illness would have resulted in the child's death. From 1888 to 1894 the death rate in the Boston City hospital was only once below 40 per cent, and in 1892 it rose to nearly 50 per cent.
Check Child's Eyes, Ears Before He Enters School
It will save you a lot of grief in the future if you are certain that your child's eyesight and hearing are efficient before entering school.You may think that such things would make themselves known. But that is not always the case. The life of the pre-school child is not such as will test either vision or hearing severely. The activities of school soon do and the bad grades or backwardness may be due to very simple little deficiencies in sight or hearing.
Diseases Of The Circulatory System
MOST heart disease is imaginary. So begins a book called, 'Facts on the Heart,' by one of the best-known physicians in the United States. As its title implies, the book aims to present nothing that cannot be substantiated—nothing but the facts. And the first fact on the first page is that most 'heart disease' is imaginary.
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