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Reawakening Of Science
The reader must not suppose that the destructive criticism of the Catholic Church and of Catholic Christianity, and the printing and study of the Bible, were the only or even the most important of the intellectual activities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
New Growth Of European Towns
We have dealt thus fully with the recrudescence of scientific studies in the Middle Ages because of its ultimate importance in human affairs. In the long run, Roger Bacon is of more significance to mankind than any monarch of his time.
America Comes Into History
In 1453, as we have related, Constantinople fell. Throughout the next century the Turkish pressure upon Europe was heavy and continuous.
What Machiavelli Thought Of The World
And now let us consider the political consequences of this vast release and expansion of European ideas in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries with the new development of science, the exploration of the world, the great dissemination of knowledge through paper and printing, and the spread of a new craving for freedom and equality.
Republic Of Switzerland
It is interesting to note that this Swiss infantry which had so impressed Machiavelli was no part of the princely system of Europe.
Life Of The Emperor Charles V
Most of the figures that stand out in history, do so through some exceptional personal quality, good or bad, that makes them more significant than their fellows.
Protestants If The Prince Wills It
Ferdinand, the brother of Charles V, took over his abandoned work and met the German princes at the diet of Augsburg in 1555.
Intellectual Undertow
We have given as much attention as we have done to the writings of Machiavelli and to the personality of Charles V because they throw a flood of light upon the antagonisms of the next period in our history.
Princes, Parliaments, And Powers
IN the preceding chapter we have traced the beginnings of a new civilization, the civilization of the modern type which becomes at the present time world wide.
Dutch Republic
The breaking away of the Netherlands from absolutist monarchy was the beginning of a series of such conflicts throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They varied very greatly in detail according to local and racial peculiarities but essentially they were all rebellious against the idea of a predominating personal prince and his religious and political direction.
English Republic
The open struggle of the private property owner against the aggressions of the Prince begins in England far back in the twelfth century.
Break-up And Disorder Of Germany
Upon no part of Europe did the collapse of the idea of a unified Christendom bring more disastrous consequences than to Germany.
Splendour Of The Monarchy In Europe
We have opened this chapter with the stories of two countries, the Netherlands and Britain, in which the resistance of the private citizen to this new type of monarchy, the Machiavellian monarchy, that was arising out of the moral collapse of Christendom, succeeded.
Growth Of The Idea Of Great Power
We have seen how the idea of a world-rule and a community of mankind first came into human affairs, and we have traced how the failure of the Christian churches to sustain and establish those conceptions of its founder, led to a moral collapse in political affairs and a reversion to egotism and want of faith.
Crowned Republic Of Poland And Its Fate
The seventeenth century in Europe was the century of Louis XIV; he and French ascendancy and Versailles are the central motif of the story.
First Scramble For Empire Overseas
We have given some account of the ascendancy of France in Europe, the swift decay of the sappy growth of Spanish power and its separation from Austria, and the rise of Prussia.
Britain Dominates India
It was not only in America that the French and British powers clashed. The condition of India at this time was one very interesting and attractive to European adventurers.
Russia's Ride To The Pacific
And while the great peninsula of the south of Asia was thus falling under the dominion of the English sea traders,an equally remarkable reaction of Europe upon Asia was going on in the north.
What Gibbon Thought Of The World In 1780
In these preceding ten sections we have been dealing with an age of division, of separated nationalities. We have already described this period of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as an interregnum in the progress of mankind towards a world-wide unity.
Social Truce Draws To An End
One of the most interesting aspects of this story of Europe in the seventeenth and earlier eighteenth century during the phase of the Grand and Parliamentary Monarchies, is the comparative quiescence of the peasants and workers.
New Democratic Republics Of America And France
WHEN Gibbon, nearly a century and a half ago, was congratulating the world of refined and educated people that the age of great political and social catastrophes was past, he was neglecting many signs which we in the wisdom of accomplished facts could have told him portended far heavier jolts and dislocations than any he foresaw.
Thirteen Colonies Before Their Revolt
The extent of the British colonies in America in the early half of the eighteenth century is shown in the accompanying map.
Civil War Is Forced Upon The Colonies
We have noted in the previous chapter how the governing class of Great Britain steadily acquired the land and destroyed the liberty of the common people throughout the eighteenth century, and how greedily and blindly the new industrial revolution was brought about.
War Of Independence
So the war began. It was not a war that promised a conclusive end. The colonists had no one vulnerable capital; they were dispersed over a great country, with a limit less wilderness behind it, and so they had great powers of resistance.
Constitution Of The United States
From the point of view of human history, the way in which the Thirteen States became independent is of far less importance than the fact that they did become independent. And with the establishment of their independence came a new sort of community into the world.
Primitive Features Of The United States Consitution
In an earlier chapter we have described the Roman republic, and its mixture of modern features with dark superstition and primordial savagery, as the Neanderthal anticipation of the modern democratic state. A time may come when people will regard the contrivances and machinery of the American Constitution as the political equivalents of the implements and contrivances of Neolithic man.
Revolutionary Ideas In France
We have told of the War of Independence in America as the first great break away from the system of European monarchies and foreign offices, as the repudiation by a new community of Machiavellian statescraft as the directive form of human affairs.
Revolution Of The Year 1789
The first jar to this sense of the secure continuity of life in France came in 1787. Louis XVI (1774-92) was a dull, ill-educated monarch, and he had the misfortune to be married to a silly and extravagant woman, Marie Antoinette, the sister of the Austrian emperor.
French Crowned Republic Of 1789-91
The French National Assembly was far less fortunate in the circumstances of its task than the American Congress. The latter had half a continent to itself, with no possible antagonist but the British Government. Its religious and educational organizations were various, collectively not very powerful, and on the whole friendly.
Revolution Of The Jacobins
It is quite possible that with the loyal support of the crown and a reasonable patriotism on the part of the nobility, the National Assembly, in spite of its noisy galleries, its Rousseauism, and its inexperience, might have blundered through to a stable form of parliamentary government for France.
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