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Grades Of Heifer Beef
There are seven grades of heifer beef : No. A 1 or Prime, No. 1 or Choice, No. 2 or Good, No. 3 or Medium, No. 4 or Common, No. 5 or Cutter, and No. 6 or Low Cutter.No. A 1 or Prime Heifer Beef. Normally, the quantity of Prime heifer beef available is negligible.
Grades Of Cow Beef
It generally comes from an animal of an improved beef type that has not had more than one calf. It compares favorably with Choice heifer beef in quality, but in conformation it is usually more angular. The hips are more prominent, and the exterior and interior fats may be more excessive and wasty.
Grades Of Bull Beef
No. 1, or Choice, bull beef has the excellent conformation and depth of flesh characteristic of the superior beef type. The rounds, chucks, and neck are thick, or overdeveloped, and are very heavily muscled. The loins and ribs are broad, but tend to shallowness and are relatively small in proportion to the rest of the carcass.
Grades Of Stag Beef
There are fewer stags than bulls, and they are graded by virtually the same standard. Young stags are more desirable than older ones, and their carcasses often can not readily be distinguished from those of steers.
Standard Wholesale Cuts Of Beef
All beef carcasses are divided, or split, into sides of nearly equal weight, as a part of the dressing operation, and are sent to the refrigerating rooms, which are known as chill rooms, boxes, or coolers.
Standard Grades Of Beef Cuts
Although the absence of standard classes and grades for beef carcasses has been a source of confusion to the trade and to others interested, there is still further complication when the carcass is divided into the customary wholesale cuts.
Grades Of Beef Rounds
Under the Chicago method of cutting, a beef round represents about 24 per cent of the side, and includes the round or buttock, rump, and shank. The buttock is the round proper, and is especially economical for the average consumer because of the large amount of lean meat and the relatively small percentage of fat and bone.
Grades Of Beef Loins
Under the Chicago method of cutting, the loin represents about 17 per cent' of the weight of the side, but there are variations depending on the type and grade of the carcass. It contains the choicest, most valuable, and most preferred retail cuts of the entire carcass.
Grades Of Beef Ribs
Beef ribs, under the Chicago method of cutting, contain seven ribs, and represent about 9 per cent of the carcass weight. In tenderness and value they are second only to loins. They are used principally for roasts, although many butchers convert them into steaks.
Grades Of Beef Chucks
Under the Chicago method of cutting, a beef chuck represents about 26 per cent of the weight of the side. It contains five ribs, with the shank and brisket removed. Some markets remove the shank by disjointing it at the shoulder.
Grades Of Plates And Briskets
The grades of beef plates and briskets correspond to those of the carcass from which they come, Together, the two cuts represent approximately 12 per cent of the weight of the side. Taken separately, the plate represents 8 per cent and the brisket 4 per cent, all based on the Chicago method of 'cutting.
Kosher Beef
Beef from cattle slaughtered and dressed in accordance with certain prescribed Jewish rites is known as kosher beef. The term kosher means clean, or ceremonially clean. The method of slaughter differs from the usual custom in that the animal is not stunned before the throat is cut.
Meat Cutting Methods
The absolute lack of standardization in the retail meat industry becomes particularly noticeable when the various meat cutting methods as practiced in different sections throughout the United States are studied. Practically every retailer in a given locality uses a slightly different method of cutting.
Mid-Western Or Chicago Style Of Meat Cutting
The mid-western style of cutting, also called the Chicago style, is most popular throughout the United States and is used throughout most of the middle-west and west. It is unquestionably a very simple method of meat cutting.
North Carolina Method Of Meat Cutting
As another contrasting example of meat cutting, the illustrations of cutting used in North Carolina are reproduced here-with. These may also be considered typical in many of the southern states.
Philadelphia Method Of Meat Cutting
Philadelphia and vicinity have a method of meat cutting all their own Retailers claim that it is most difficult to try and break away from this tradition, or of educating the public to other cuts which are more generally used throughout the United States.
Beef Cutting Methods
Wholesale and Retail Cuts of BeefThere are certain standard cuts of beef which are known in practically all parts of the United States. Beef rounds, loins and ribs may be considered standard names. There is, however, such a variety of names as they apply to retail cuts to be too numerous to mention.
Standards For Grades Of Veal, Lamb And Mutton
There is not as yet an official method in effect for the grading of calves, as this work has not been completed by the United States government.
Definitions Of Lamb And Mutton
Lamb is a general term which refers to the flesh of young animals of the ovine species of both sexes. The age at which the change from lamb to yearling sheep takes place in the live animals is approximately 12 to 14 months.
Basis For Grading Lamb And Mutton
The act of grading naturally follows that of classifying and is a continuation of the same analytical process In the present case, the whole commodity has been divided into two major groupsólamb and mutton, the latter being further subdivided into yearling mutton and mature mutton.
Grades Of Lamb Carcasses
Prime or No. A 1 Grade lamb carcasses are practically ideal in conformation, finish, and quality The general outlines of carcasses of this grade are especially attractive, being symmetrical to a marked degree, owing to an abundance of highest degree, palatable flesh, particularly in the regions of the most desired cuts.
Grades Of Mutton Carcasses
Yearling mutton carcasses are from animals of the ovine species that have passed the lamb age and lost, to an appreciable extent, the characteristics which are peculiar to lamb, but have not reached that stage of maturity at time of slaughter when they could be properly classed as mutton.
Mature Mutton Carcasses
Prime or No. A 1 grade mature mutton carcasses are ideal in conformation, finish and quality. They resemble Prime grade yearling mutton carcasses in many respects, but have harder, whiter bones, darker flesh and more brittle fats.
Lamb And Mutton Cutting Methods
The cutting up of lamb and mutton along certain standard lines is found all over the United States, with the exception of certain parts of the metropolitan district, New England and the Pacific coast, where shoulders are raised and honed.
Pork And Pork Products
The average meat retailer does not cut up whole hogs except in certain localities. Therefore, hog cutting methods and practices are confined almost entirely to the packing house industry. The great majority of retailers buy pork products already cut up, such as hams, shoulders, loins, fat backs and other cuts.
Pork And Pork Cuts
The same principle is applied to hams, shoulders and bacon. When large quantities of such products are, bought, it is customary to classify pork cuts as adopted by the Board of Directors, Chicago Board of Trade, which is used as a packing-house standard in the cutting and packing of pork products.
Skinned hams are the same in all respects as regular short-cut hams, except that the skin is removed down to within 4 inches of the hock and surplus fat is trimmed off.Long-Cut HamsóLong-cut hams are severed from the side at the second joint from tail bone, straight across on a line approximately three-fourths to one inch from end of aitch bone.
Sides of medium-weight hogs so cut that the ham, shoulder and pork loin are removed and half sheet of spare-ribs and back fat left in are known as extra short ribs. Rough Short Ribs (Soft Side)óSides of heavy hogs with ham, shoulder, and all of the backbone removed and the ribs left in are known as rough short ribs (soft side).
Pork Shoulders
A picnic shoulder comprises the lower end of the shoulder cut two and one-half ribs wide with the foot removed about one inch above the knee joint. It is trimmed full on the face and has butt removed at the joint above the shoulder joint where the blade bone begins to widen.
Export Cuts Of Pork
The principal export cuts are Wiltshire sides, Cumberland sides, and regular long clears. Other export cuts which are not generally made are long ribs, Dublin middles, export short clears, export short fat backs, export pork loins, and English bellies.
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