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Average Wholesale Prices Of Beef
Average wholesale selling prices per hundred lbs. of beef in four important cities for the pre-war year 1914...
Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Retail Meat Business
It seems to be human nature that the average business man will always speak of the disadvantages of his particular profession or business. Seldom, if ever, are the obvious advantages pointed out. Comparing the retail meat business with practically all other lines, quite a number of advantages can be readily discovered, which are lacking in other industries.
Disadvantages Of The Retail Meat Business
While the meat retailer enjoys some especially fine advantages in his business, there are, of course, disadvantages.
Needs Of The Retail Meat Industry
Does the retail meat industry need improvements or remedies? Not everyone engaged in the retail meat business realizes that there is great room for improvement to better conditions in the industry.
Meat Retailing - Figuring The Cost And Selling Price
It is the desire and ambition of every meat retailer to conduct his business in such a manner that he can sell meats at a reasonable price and earn a legitimate profit on the transaction. To know how to conduct the meat business most profitably is unquestionably the major problem requiring a solution.
Bookkeeping For The Meat Retailer
In the previous chapter it has been pointed out how very important it is for the retailer to know how to establish a correct selling price. To know how to establish this correct selling price requires that one must know all expenses which enter into the cost of doing business.
Meat Retailing - A Simple Bookkeeping System
The meat retailer who will study the examples of the simple bookkeeping system given in the following pages has no excuse upon which to base his claim that that it will entail intricate bookkeeping methods. By using this system he has the opportunity to record all of his business transactions and therefore arrive at the facts so he can know how much it costs him to do business.
Establishing Cost And Selling Prices Retail Beef Cuts
In previous chapters, the author has pointed out some of the disadvantages in the retail meat industry. One of the principal shortcomings discovered was the difficulty of establishing a correct cost and selling price, or rather the absence of any definite method of accomplishing this important task.
Retail Beef Cuts - Establishing Cost And Selling Prices
In order to get authentic cutting tests, the figures used in these charts have been taken from a test made by Ye Olde New York Branch United Master Butchers of America.
Retail Beef Cuts - Establishing Cost And Selling Prices
The side of a steer used in working out the tests for the Baltimore style of cutting was of good grade and weighed 310 lbs. The cutting test was made by representatives of the United States Department of Agriculture and has been reproduced through their courtesy.
Retail Beef Cuts - Establishing Correct Cost And Selling Prices
The cutting test for the Northwestern or Spokane style of cutting was made by one of the leading retailers of Spokane in co-operation with the author. A good grade No. 1 heifer was selected as a typical average carcass.
Veal - Establishing Correct Cost And Selling Prices
As there is comparatively very little difference in the cutting up of a veal carcass, the cutting tests have been made in two styles of cutting, one the typical Midwestern style, and the other the Greater New York style. There is practically very little difference in the styles of cutting except that many retailers in Greater New York raise the shoulder of veal and sell it as a whole.
Lamb - Establishing Cost And Selling Prices
A choice lamb weighing 46 lbs. was taken for the example of a cutting test to arrive at percentages for establishing cost and selling prices. This test may be considered typical of the average style of lamb cutting. Lamb is cut practically alike throughout the United States with the exception of some localities where the shoulders are raised and shoulder may be boned.
Hog - Establishing Cost And Selling Prices
The hog cutting test for establishing cost and selling prices was based upon an 86 lb. dressed shipper hog, divided into retail cuts. The principle used in establishing cost and selling prices is the same as applied in the beef tests, namely, a first or PRIME cost, and then an ACTUAL cost is established.
Pork Loin - Establishing Correct Cost And Selling Prices
A pork loin weighing 10 lbs., 8 ozs., has been taken as a typical example for this test so as to establish cost and selling prices of pork chops. While there are markets which sell end chops at the same price as they sell center cuts, it has been found that the great majority of meat retailers find it difficult to sell end chops at the same price as center chops.
Meat For Health
A merchant in any line of business is supposed to be familiar with the products he sells. A tailor can recognize immediately the quality of clothing material, and the composition of the cloth, whether it is pure wool, cotton or silk. He has methods by which he can determine such facts.
Meat And Vitamins
What Is a Vitamin? A vitamin is a substance present in foods which adds neither protein nor energy to the diet but which is very necessary in order that we may make proper use of the food we eat. A vitamin adds no appreciable material to the diet.
Meat And Digestibility
Is Digestibility a Measure of Food Value? Yes, if something we eat cannot be digested it is of no use to us as food. Most of the food we eat should he easily and rather completely digested. Are All Foods Completely Digestible?
Meat And Disease
Does Meat Cause Rheumatism? You have heard some neighbor say: We are eating little or no meat now. Father has the rheumatism. It used to be thought that meat, especially red meat, was a cause of rheumatism.
Meats Defined
The meat retailer handling meat continuously, seldom thinks of the product which he handles. To establish a certain standard for meat inspection services, the United States government has defined standards of meats and meat food products.
Beef Grading
As pointed out in previous chapters, one of the disadvantages in the retail meat business has been the lack of any definite classification or grading used in the past. Large quantity buyers of meats who usually buy other products by specification have found this to be a handicap.
Market Classes And Grades Of Dressed Beef
Classifying and grading a commodity consists merely in dividing it into lots or groups which have similar and uniform characteristics, and which show minimum variations in the essential factors which distinguish the group from other groups.
Chief Requisites Of Standard Classes And Grades Of Beef
What are the chief requisites for a standard system of classifying and grading beef, and what should be the basis of such a system? First of all, the system should be logical and workable. It should fit the needs of the trade. Arbitrary action is sometimes necessary to uproot certain evils and inconsistencies which creep into every industry, but no system of grading could hope to succeed which ran counter to the fundamentals of trade practice.
Standard Classes And Grades For Beef
Beef is a very difficult commodity to grade. Absolute exactness is impossible. This is due partly to the fact that each individual carcass differs somewhat from every other carcass ; hence no given carcass can be taken as a sample exactly typical of a large number.
Various Bases For Grading Beef
Assuming the desirability of a standard system for grading beef, the question arises, What factors shall determine why a given carcass of beef should be placed in one class and one grade and not in some other class and grade? It is apparent that several bases might be used for grading beef.
Beef Grades - Definition Of Terms
Any discussion of classes and grades of beef involves the use of numerous terms, the purpose of which is to describe the various factors and characteristics which determine and differentiate the various groups. Nearly everyone has a fair idea as to what he means by such terms as quality, finish, and con-formation, but these ideas vary widely.
Fresh Beef
All commercial fresh beef may be divided into two general groups, fresh chilled and fresh frozen. Strictly speaking, this grouping is not a part of either classification or grading.
Beef Grading - Basis Of Classification
In the system of classification presented in this bulletin, class is determined by the sex condition of the animal from which the beef was derived. Although that is true, the real significance of sex condition consists in the fact that it implies uniform variations in degree of one or more of the three fundamental characteristics—quality, conformation, and finish.
Standard Classes Of Beef
As one of the first problems confronting the beef grader is to determine the sex. of the animal which produced the meat, the more important characteristics which are peculiar to each sex, and which therefore differentiate male from female cariasses, will be pointed out.
Standard Grades Of Beef
There are seven grades of beef : Prime, Choice, Good, Medium, Common, Cutter, and Low Cutter. Using the corresponding numerical designations, the grades are No, A 1, No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5, and No. 6.
Grades Of Steer Beef
There are seven grades of steer beef : No. A 1 or Prime, No. 1 or Choice, No. 2 or Good, No. 3 or Medium, No. 4 or Common, No. 5 or Cutter, and No. 6, or Low Cutter.No. A 1, or Prime, Steer BeefNo. A 1, or Prime, steer beef has ideal conformation.
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