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Eastern (Revived Hellenic) Empire
But though throughout the whole of Western Europe and North Africa the Roman imperial system had collapsed, though credit had vanished, luxury production had ceased and money was hidden, though creditors were going unpaid and slaves masterless, the tradition of the Caesars was still being carried on in Constantinople.
Beginnings, The Rise, And The Divisions Of Christianity
BEFORE we can understand the qualities of Christianity, which must now play a large part in our history, and which opened men's eyes to fresh aspects of the possibility of a unified world, we must go back some centuries and tell of the condition of affairs in Palestine and Syria, in which countries Christianity arose.
Teachings Of Jesus Of Nazareth
The audience to which this book will first be presented will be largely an audience of Christians, with perhaps a sprinkling of Jewish readers, and the former at least will regard Jesus of Nazareth as being much more than a human teacher, and his appearance in the world not as a natural event in history...
New Universal Religions
Yet be it noted that while there was much in the real teachings of Jesus that a rich man, or a priest or a trader or an imperial official or any ordinary respectable citizen could not accept without the most revolutionary changes in his way of living...
Crucifixion Of Jesus Of Nazareth
In the year 30 A. D., while Tiberius, the second emperor, was Emperor of Rome and Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea, a little while before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus of Nazareth came into Jerusalem.
Doctrines Added To The Teachings Of Jesus
The story of the early beginnings of Christianity is the story of the struggle between the real teachings and spirit of Jesus of Nazareth and the limitations, amplifications, and misunderstandings of the very inferior men who had loved and followed him from Galilee, and who were now the bearers and custodians of his message to mankind.
Struggles And Persecutions Of Christianity
So far as it challenged the divinity of Caesar and the characteristic institutions of the empire, Christianity is to be regarded as a rebellious and disintegrating movement, and so it was regarded by most of the emperors before Constantine the Great. It encountered considerable hostility, and at last systematic attempts to suppress it.
Constantine The Great
The figure of Constantine the Great is at least as cardinal in history as that of Alexander the Great or Augustus Caesar.We know very little of his personality or of his private life; no Plutarch, no Suetonius, has preserved any intimate and living details about him.
Establishment Of Official Christianity
This date 325 A. D. is a very convenient; date in our history. t is the date of the first complete general (oecumenical) council of the entire Christian world. (That at Arles we have mentioned had been a gathering of only the western half.) t marks the definite entry upon the stage of human affairs of the Christian church and of Christianity as it is generally understood in the world today.
Map Of Europe A.D. 500
We have already given an account in the previous chapter of the chief irruptions of the barbarian races. We may now, with the help of a map, make a brief review of the political divisions of Europe at the close of the fifth century. No vestige of the Western Empire, the original Roman Empire, remained as a distinct and separate political division.
Salvation Of Learning By Christianity
A very important share in the social recrystallization that went on in the sixth and seventh centuries after the breakdown and fusion of the fourth and fifth was taken by the Christian monastic orders that were now arising in the Western world.
Seven Centuries In Asia (circa 50 B. C. To A. D. 650)
IN the preceding two chapters we have concentrated our attention chiefly on the collapse in the comparativelyshort space of four centuries of the political and social order of the western part of the great Roman Empire of Caesar and Trajan.
Sassanide Empire
We have already drawn a comparison between the brief four centuries of Roman imperialism and the obstinate vitality of the imperialism of the Euphrates-Tigris country. We have glanced very transitorily at the Hellenized Bactrian and Seleucid monarchies that flourished in the eastern half of Alexander's area of conquest for three centuries...
Decay Of Syria Under The Sassanids
So we give briefly the leading events in the history of the Persian as of the Byzantine Empire. What is more interesting for us and less easy to give are the changes that went on in the lives of the general population of those great empires during that time.
First Message From Islam
It was while Heraclius was engaged in restoring order in this already desolated Syria after the death of Chosroes II and before the final peace with Persia, that a strange message was brought to him. The bearer had ridden over to the imperial outpost at Bostra in the wilderness south of Damascus.
Hunnish Peoples In Central Asia And India
It becomes fairly evident that in the fifth and sixth centuries A. D. not merely Persia, but the regions that are now Turkestan and Afghanistan were far more advanced in civilization than were the French and English of that time.
Great Age Of China
These seven centuries which saw the beginning and the end of the emperors in Rome and the complete breakdown and recasting of the social, economic, political and religious life of Western Europe, saw also very profound changes in the Chinese world. it is too commonly assumed by both Chinese, Japanese, and European historians, that the Han dynasty...
Intellectual Fetters Of China
The urbanity, the culture, and the power of China under the early Tang rulers are in so vivid a contrast with the decay, disorder, and divisions of the Western world, as at once to raise some of the most interesting questions in the history of civilization.
Travels Of Yuan Chwang
In the year 629, the year after the arrival of Muhammad's envoys at Canton and thirty odd years after the landing of Pope Gregory's missionaries in England, a certain learned and devout Buddhist named Yuan Chwang stated out from Sian-fu (Singan), Tai-tsung's capital, upon a great journey to India.
Muhammad And Islam
WE have already described how in A. D. 628 the courts of Heraclius, of Kavadh, and of Tai-tsnng were visited by Arab envoys sent from a certain Muhammad, - The Prophet of God, at the small trading town of Medina in Arabia.
Life Of Muhammad And To The Hegira
It was in Mecca about the year A. D. 570 that Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born. He was born in considerable poverty, and even by the standards of the desert he was uneducated; it is doubtful if he ever learnt to write.
Muhammad Becomes A Fighting Prophet
Until the Hegira, until he was fifty-one, the character of the founder of Islam is a matter of speculation and dispute. Thereafter he is in the light. We discover a man, of great imaginative power but tortuous in the Arab fashion, and with the most of the virtues and defects of the Bedouin.
Teachings Of Islam
But the personal quality of Muhammad is one thing and the quality of Islam, the religion he founded, is quite another. Muhammad was not pitted against Jesus and big relative stature is only a very secondary question for us; it is Islam which was pitted against the corrupted Christianity of the seventh century and against the decaying traditions of the Zoroastrian Magi...
Caliphs Abu Bekr And Omar
The true embodiment of the spirit of Islam was not Muhammad, but his close friend and supporter Abu Bekr. There can be little doubt that if Muhammad was the mind and imagination of primitive Islam, Abu Bekr was its conscience and its will.
Great Days Of Omayyads
Abu Bekr and Omar I are the two master figures in the history of Islam. It is not within our scope here to describe the wars by which in a hundred and twenty-five years Islam spread itself from the Indus to the Atlantic and Spain, and from Kashgar on the borders of China to Upper Egypt.
Decay Of Islam Under The Abbasids
But the descendants of Ali were not destined to share in this triumph for long. The Abbasids were adventurers and rulers of an older school than Islam. Now that the tradition of Ali had served its purpose, the next proceeding of the new Caliph was to hunt down and slaughter the surviving members of his family, the descendants of Ali and Fatima.
Intellectual Life Of Arab Islam
But before we go on to tell of theTurks and the Crusaders, the great wars that began between Christendom and Islam, and which have left a quite insane intolerance between these great systems right down to the present time...
From Butcher To Meat Retailer
The practical meat retailer may not be interested in the historical facts about the retail meat business. There are, however, a great many features about the meat industry of general interest to the man engaged in the retail meat business.
Meat Packer Supplants The Butcher
Analyzing the present methods of meat retailing, one finds that the former butcher has practically disappeared. While there are still a number of retailers in the United States who slaughter some livestock for their retail markets, they do not play a very important part in our present day method of meat retailing.
Meat Packers As Retail Distributors
While in the olden days, the butcher and slaughterer was his own retail distributor, economists have at times advocated the advisability of going back to the simple line of meat distribution, that is, to have the packers retail meats.
Importance Of The Retail Meat Business
There was a time when the old time butcher had reasons to be proud of his profession. He prided himself on his skill in dressing cattle, calves and other livestock. He took great pride in being an expert butcher with a thorough knowledge of all phases of the business.
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