Antiques Digest Browse Auctions Appraisal Home

Alexendria As A Factory Of Religious
If Alexandria was late to develop a distinctive philosophy, she was early prominent as a great factory and change of religious ideas. The Museum and library represented only one of the three sides of the triple city of Alexandria.
Alexandria And India
The commercial and intellectual importance of Alexandria continued for many centuries. Anticipating the account we shall presently give of the rise of the Roman power, we may tell here that under the Empire Alexandria became the greatest trade centre in the world.
Rise And Spread Of Buddhism
IT is interesting to turn from the mental and moral activities of Athens and Alexandria, and the growth of human ideas in the Mediterranean world, to the almost entirely separate intellectual life of India. Here was a civilization which from the first seems to have grown up upon its own roots and with a character of its own.
Gautama - Teaching And Legend In Conflict
Such is the plain story of Gautama as we gather it from a comparison of early writings. But common men must have their cheap marvels and wonders.It is nothing to them that this little planet should at last produce upon its surface a man thinking of the past and the future and the essential nature of existence.
Gospel Of Gautama Buddha
The fundamental teaching of Gautama, as it is now being made plain to us by the study of original sources, is clear and simple and in the closest harmony with modern ideas.
Buddhism And Asoka
From the very first this new teaching was misconceived. One corruption was perhaps inherent in its teaching. Because the world of men had as yet no sense of the continuous progressive effort of life, it was very easy to slip from the idea of renouncing self to the idea of renouncing active life.
Two Great Chinese Teachers
It is thought that the vast benefactions of Asoka finally corrupted Buddhism by attracting to its Order great numbers of mercenary and insincere adherents, but there can be no doubt that its rapid extension throughout Asia was very largely due to his stimulus.
Corruptions Of Buddhism
The intolerance of the Jewish mind did keep its essential faith clear and clean. The theological disregard of the great Eastern teachers, neither assenting nor denying, did on the other hand permit elaborations of explanation and accumulations, of ritual from the very beginning.
Present Range Of Buddhism
For some time Buddhism flourished in India. But Brahminism, with its many gods and its endless variety of cults, always flourished by its side, and the organization of the Brahmins grew more powerful, until at last they were able to turn upon this caste-denying cult and oust it from India altogether.
The Two Western Republics
IT is now necessary to take up the history of the two great republics of the Western. Mediterranean, Rome and Carthage, and to tell how Rome succeeded in maintaining for some centuries an empire even greater than that achieved by the conquests of Alexander.
A New Sort Of State
But we write, Rome and the Romans, and we have still to explain what manner of people these were who were playing a role of conquest that had hitherto been played only by able and aggressive monarchs.
Carthaginian Republic Of Rich Men
It has been necessary to deal rather fully with the political structure of the Roman republic because of its immense importance to this day. The constitution of Carthage need not detain us long.Italy under Rome was a republican country ; Carthage was that much older thing, a republican city.
First Punic War
It would be interesting, and not altogether idle, to speculate on what might have happened to mankind if Rome and Carthage could have settled their differences and made a pennanent alliance in the Western world. If Alexander the Great had lived, he might have come westward and driven these two powers into such a fusion of interests.
Cato The Elder And The Spirit Of Cato
For twenty-two years there was peace between Rome and Carthage. It was peace without prosperity. Both combatants were suffering from the want and disorganization that follow naturally and necessarily upon all great wars. The territories of Carthage seethed with violent disorders ; the returning soldiers could not get their pay, and mutinied and looted ; the land went uncultivated.
Second Punic War
We can only tell very briefly here of the particulars of the Second and Third Punic Wars. We have told how Hamilcar began to organize Spain, and how the Romans forbade him to cross the Ebro. He died in 228 B. C., and was followed by his son-in-law Hasdrubal, who was assassinated in 221 B. c. and succeeded by Hannibal, who was now twenty-six.
Third Punic War
The history of Rome for the fifty-six years that elapsed between the battle of Zama and the last act of the tragedy, the Third Punic War, tells of a hard ungracious expansion of power abroad and of a slow destruction, by the usury and greed of the rich, of the free agricultural population at home.
How The Punic War Underminded Roman Liberty
We must note here, in a brief section, a change in the military system of Rome, after the Second Punic War, that was of enormous importance in her later development. Up to that period the Roman armies had been levies of free citizens.
Comparison Of The Roman Republic With A Modern State
The history of the Roman Republic thus far, is in many respects much more modern in flavour, especially to the American or Western European reader, than anything that has preceded it.
From Tiberius Gracchus To The God Emperor In Rome
WE have already twice likened the self-governing community of Rome to a Neanderthal variety of the modern democratic civilized state, and we shall recur again to this comparison.
Finance In The Roman State
Another respect in which the Roman system was a crude anticipation of our own, and different from any preceding political system we have considered, was that it was a cash and credit-using system. Money had been in the world as yet for only a few centuries.
Last Years Of Republican Politics
The first conspicuous leader to appeal to the gathering revolutionary feeling in Italy was Tiberius Gracchus. He Iooks more like an honest man than any other figure in this period of history, unless it be Scipio Africanus the Elder. At first Tiberius Gracchus was a moderate reformer of a rather reactionary type.
Era Of The Adventurer Generals
Political life in Italy was, not so much tranquillized as stunned by the Massacres and confiscations of Marius and Sulla. The scale upon which this history is planned will not permit us to tell here of the great adventurers who, relying more and more on the support of the legions, presently began to scheme and intrigue again for dictatorial power in Rome.
End Of The Roman Republic
But among the politicians of Italy in the first century B. Q. there were no maps of Germany and Russia, Africa and Central Asia, and no sufficient intelligence to study them had they existed. Rome never developed the fine curiosities that sent Hanno and the sailors of Pharaoh Necho down the coasts of Africa.
Coming Of The Princeps
But the trend of things was overwhelmingly towards monarchy. For thirteen years more the struggle of personalities went on. One single man is to be noted as inspired by broad ideas and an ambition not entirely egoistic, Cicero. He was a man of modest origin, whose eloquence and literary power had won him a prominent place in the Senate.
Why The Roman Republic Failed
In this manner it was that Roman republicanism ended in a princeps or ruling prince, and the first great experiment in a self governing community on a scale larger than that of tribe or city, collapsed and failed.The essence of its failure was that it could not sustain unity.
Caesars Between The Sea And The Great Plains Of The Old World
WESTERN writers are apt, through their patriotic predispositions, to overestimate the organization, civilizing work, and security of the absolute monarchy that established itself in Rome after the accession of Augustus Caesar.
Roman Civilization At Its Zenith
The impatient reader of history may be disposed to count the two centuries of order between 27 B. c. and 180 A. D. as among the wasted opportunities of mankind. It was an age of spending rather than of creation, an age of architecture and trade in which the rich grew richer and the poor poorer and the soul and spirit of man decayed.
Limitations Of The Roman Mind
We have already shown reason for our statement that the Roman imperial system was a very unsound political growth indeed. It is absurd to write of its statecraft; it had none, At its best it had a bureaucratic administration which kept the peace of the world for a time and failed altogether to secure it.
Stir Of The Great Plains
And now it is necessary, if we are to understand clearly the true situation of the Roman Empire, to turn our eyes to the world beyond its northern and eastern borders, the world of the plains, that stretches, with scarcely a break, from Holland across Germany and Russia to the mountains of Central Asia and Mongolia...
Western Empire Crumples Up
The first serious irruptions of the German tribes into the Roman Empire began in the third century with the decay of the central power. We will not entangle the reader here with the vexed and intricate question of the names, idenity, and inter-relationships of the various Germanic tribes.
[Page: 601  |  602  |  603  |  604  |  605  |  606  |  607  |  608  |  609  |  610
611  |  612  |  613  |  614  |  615  |  616  |  617  |  618  |  619  |  620  | 
621  |  622  |  623  |  624  |  625  |  626  |  627  |  628  |  629  |  630  | 
631  |  632  |  633  |  634  |  635  |  636  |  637  |  638  |  639  |  640  | 
641  |  642  |  643  |  644  |  645  |  646  |  647  |  648  |  649  |  650  |  More Pages ]


Please contact us at info@oldandsold.com