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Importance Of The Hebrew Prophets
The historical books from Genesis to Nehemiah, upon which the idea of the promise to the chosen people had been imposed later, were no doubt the backbone of Jewish mental unity, but they by no means complete the Hebrew literature from which finally the Bible was made up.
Aryan Speaking Peoples In Prehistoric Times
WE have spoken of the Aryan language as probably arising in the region of the Danube and South Russia and spreading from that region of origin.
Primitive Aryan Life
What sort of life did these prehistoric Aryans lead, these Nordic Aryans who were the chief ancestors of most Europeans and most white Americans and European colonists of today, as well as of the Armenians, Persians, and high caste Hindus?
Early Aryan Daily Life
The Greek epics reveal the early Greeks with no knowledge of iron, without writing, and before any Greek-founded cities existed in the land into which they had evidently come quite recently as conquerors. They were spreading south-ward from the Ayran region of origin.
Greeks And The Persians
THE Greeks appear in the dim light before the dawn of history (say, 1,500 B. C.) as one of the wandering imperfectly nomadic Aryan peoples who were gradually extending the range of their pasturage southward into the Balkan peninsula and coming into conflict and mixing with that preceding AEgean civilizaticn of which Knossos was the crown.
Distinctive Features Of Hellenic Civilization
Now this Greek civilization that we find growing up in South Italy and Greece and Asia Minor in the seventh century B. C., is a civilization differing in many important respects from the two great civilized systems whose growth Vowels were less necessary for the expression of a Semitic language.
Monarchy Aristocracy, And Democracy In Greece
The government of these city states varied very widely in its nature. As they settled down after their conquests, the Greeks retained for a time the rule of their kings, but these to the rule of the aristocratic class.
Kingdom Of Lydia
We have had occasion to mention the kingdom of Lydia, and it may be well to give a short note here upon the Lydians before proceeding with our story. The original population of the larger part of Asia Minor may perhaps have been akin to the original population of Greece and Crete.
Rise Of The Persians In The East
Now while one series of Aryan-speaking invaders had developed along the lines we have described in Greece, Magna Graecia, and around the shores of the Black Sea, another series of Aryan-speaking peoples, whose originally Nordic blood was perhaps already mixed with a Mongolian elementwere settling and spreading to the north and east of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires.
Story Of Croesus
But one monarch in the world was alive to the threat of the new power that lay in the hands of Cyrus. This was Croesus, the Lydian king. His son had been killed in a very tragic manner, which Herodotus relates, but which we will not describe here.
Darius Invades Russia
Cyrus was succeeded by his son Cambyses, who took an army into Egypt (525 B. C.). There was a battle in the delta, in which Greek mercenaries fought on both sides. Herodotus declares that he saw the bones of the slain still lying on the field fifty or sixty years later, and comments on the comparative thinness of the Persian skulls.
Battle Of Marathon
The first attack upon Greece proper was made in 490 B.C. It was a sea attack upon Athens, with a force long and carefully prepared for the task, the fleet being provided with specially built transports for the conveyance of horses. This expedition made a landing near Marathon in Attica.
Thermopyloe And Salamis
So Greece, unified for a while by fear, gained her first victory over Persia. The news came to Darius simultaneously with the news of rebellion in Egypt, and he died while still undecided in which direction to turn.
Platoea And Mycale
The rest of the Persian army remained in Thessaly under the command of Mardonius, and for a year he maintained an aggressive campaign against the Greeks.
Greek Thought In Relation To Human Society
GREEK history for the next forty years after Plataea and Mycale is a story of comparative peace and tranquillity. There were wars, but they were not intense wars.
Another leading figure in this Athenian movement, a fleure still mote out of harmony with the life around him) and quite as much an original source and stimulant of the enduring greatness of his age, was a. man called Socrates, the son of a stonemason.
Plato And The Academy
Plato was born 427 B.C., and he lived for eighty years.In mental temperament Plato was of an altogether different type from Socrates. He was a most artistic and delicate writer, and Socrates could write nothing consecutive.
Aristotle And The Lyceum
Plato taught in the Academy. To him in his old age came a certain good-looking youngster from Stagira in Macedonia, Aristotle, who was the son of the Macedonian king's physician, and a man with a very different type of mind from that of the great .Athenian.
Philosophy Becomes Unworldly
The general drift of thought in the concluding years of the fourth century B. C. was not with Aristotle, nor towards the laborious and necessary accumulation of ordered knowledge. It is possible that without his endowments from the king he would have made but a small figure in intellectual history.
Quality And Limitations Of The Greek Thought
If the Greek classics are to be read with any benefit by modern men, they must be read as the work of men like ouselves. Regard must be had to their traditions, their opportunities, and their limitations.
Philip Of Macedonia
THE true hero of the story of Alexander is not so much Alexander as his father Philip. The author of a piece does not shine in the limelight as the actor does, and it was Philip who planned much of the greatness that his son achieved, who laid the foundations and forged the tools, who had indeed already begun the Persian expedition at the time of his death.
Murder Of King Philip
It is necessary now to tell something of the domestic life of King Philip. The lives of both Philip and his son were pervaded by the personality of a restless and evil woman, Olympias, the mother of Alexander.
Alexander The Great First Conquests
These stories have to be told because history cannot be understood without them. Here was the great world of men between India and the Adriatic ready for union, ready as it had never been before for a unifying control. Here was the wide order of the Persian empire with its roads, its posts, its general peace and prosperity, ripe for the fertilizing influence of the Greek mind.
Wanderings Of Alexander The Great
And now begins a new phase in the story of Alexander. For the next seven years he wandered with an army chiefly of Macedonians in the north and east of what was then the known world. At first it was a pursuit of Darius. Afterwards it was it a systematic survey of a world he meant to consolidate into one great order, or was it a wild-goose chase?
Was Alexander Indeed Great
Alexander had been in undisputed possession of the Persian empire for six years. He was now thirty-one. In those six years he had created very little.
Successors Of Alexander The Great
From this welter of crime there presently emerged three leading figures. Much of the old Persian empire, as far as the Indus eastward and almost to Lydia in the west, was held by one general Seleucus, who founded a dynasty, the Seleucid Dynasty...
Pergamum A Refuge Of Culture
Amidst all these shattered fragments of the burst bubble of Hellenic empire one small state stands out and demands at least a brief section to itself, the kingdom of Pergamum.
Alexander The Great As A Portent Of World Unity
Nearly all historians are disposed to regard the career of Alexander the Great as marking an epoch in human affairs. If drew together all the known world, excepting only the western Mediterranean, into one drama. But the opinions men have formed of Alexander himself vary enormously.
Science Of Alexandria
ONE of the most prosperous fragments of the brief world empire of Alexander the Great was Egypt, which fell to the share of the Ptolemy whose name we have already noted as one of the associates of Alexander whom King Philip had banished.
Philosophy Of Alexendria
At first the mental activities of Alexandria centred upon the Museum, and were mainly scientific. Philosophy, which in a more vigorous age had been a doctrine of power over self and the material world, without abandoning these pretensions, became in reality a doctrine of secret consolation.
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