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Early Civilization Of India
The history we need to tell here of India is simpler even than this brief record of Egypt. The Dravidian peoples in the Ganges valley developed upon parallel lines to the Sumerian and Egyptian societies.
Early History Of China
Meanwhile, as this triple system of White Man civilization developed in India and in the lands about the meeting-places of Asia, Africa, and Europe, another and quite distant location finds civilization was developing and spreading out from the then fertile but now dry and desolate valley of the Tarim and from the slopes of the Kuen-lun mountains in two directions down the course of the Hwangho...
White Civilizations Were Growing
And in these thousands of years during which man was making his way step by step from the barbarism of the heliolithic culture to civilization at these old world centres, what was happening in the rest of the world?
Sea Peoples And Trading Peoples
THE first boats were made very early indeed in the Neo-Ethic stage of culture by riverside and lakeside peoples. They were no more than trees and floating wood, used to assist the imperfect natural swimming powers of men. Then came the hollowing out of the trees, and then, with the development of tools and a primitive carpentry, the building of boats.
Aegeans Cities Before History
These early Cretans were of a race akin to the Iberians of Spain and Western Europe and the dark whites of Asia Minor and North Africa, and their language is unknown. This race lived not only in Crete, but in Cyprus, Greece, Asia Minor, Sicily, and South Italy. It was a civilized people for long ages before the fair Nordic Greeks spread south-ward through Macedonia.
First Voyages Of Exploration
At her zenith Carthage probably had the hitherto unheard of population of a million. This population was largely industrial, and her woven goods were universally famous. As well as a coasting trade, she had a considerable land trade with Central Africa, and she sold negro slaves, ivory, metals, precious stones and the like, to all the Mediterranean people...
Early Traders
The great trading cities of the Phoenicians are the most striking of the early manifestations of the peculiar and characteristic gift of the Semitic peoples to mankind, trade and exchange.
Early Travellers
When one realizes the absence of small money or of any conveniently portable means of exchange in the pre-Alexandrian world, one perceives how impossible was private travel in those days. The first inns no doubt a sort of caravanserai are commonly said to have come into existence in Lydia in the third or fourth century B. C.
Writing - Picture Writing
IN the four preceding chapters (XII to XV) we have sketched in broad outline the development of the chief human communities from the primitive beginnings of the heliolithic culture to the great historical kingdoms and empires in the sixth century B. C.
Syllable Writing
But while the Chinese mind thus made for itself an instrument which is probably too elaborate in structure, too laborious in use, and too inflexible in its form to meet the modern need for simple, swift, exact and lucid communications, the growing civilizations of the west were working out the problem of a written record upon rather different and, on the whole, more advantageous lines.
Alphabet Writing
But, meanwhile, in Egypt and upon the Mediterranean coast yet another system of writing grew up. Its beginnings are probably to be found in the priestly picture-writing (hieroglyphics) of the Egyptians, which also in the usual way became partly a sound-sign system.
Place Of Writing In Human Life
So it was by a series of very natural steps that writing grew out of the life of man. At first and for long ages it was the interest and the secret of only a few people in a special class, a mere accessory to the record of pictures. But there were certain very manifest advantages, quite apart from the increased expressiveness of mood and qualifications, to be gained by making writing a little less than straight forward pictures...
Gods And Stars, Priests And Kings
WHEN we direct our attention to those new accumulations of human beings that were beginning in Egypt and Mesopotamia, we find that one of the most conspicuous and constant objects in all these cities is a temple or a group of temples.
Priest And The Stars
We may note here a very interesting fact about the chief temples of Egypt and, so far as we know because the ruins are not so distinct of Babylonia, and that is that they were oriented that is to say, that the same sort of temple was built so that the shrine and entrance always faced in the same direction.
Priest And The Dawn Of Learning
This clear evidence of astronomical inquiry and of a development of astronomical ideas is the most obvious, but only the most obvious evidence of the very considerable intellectual activities that went on within the temple precincts in ancient times.
Kings Against Priest
The earliest civilized governments were essentially priestly governments. It was not kings and captains who first set men to the plough and a settled life. It was the ideas of the gods and plenty, working with the acquiescence of common men.
How Bel-Marduk Struggled
In the early days of Sumeria and Akkadia the city-kings were priests and medicine-men rather than kings, and it was only when foreign conquerors sought to establish their hold in relation to existing institutions that the distinction of priest and king became definite.
The Gods - Kings Of Egypt
The story of priest and king in Egypt is similar to, but by no means parallel with, that of Babylonia. The kings of Sumeria and Assyria were priests who had become kings; they were secularized priests. The Pharaoh of Egypt does not appear to have followed precisely that line.
Shi Hwang-Ti Destroys The Book
The struggle of priest and king in China cannot be discussed here at any length. It was different again, as in Egypt it was different from Babylonia, but we find the same effort on the part of the ruler to break up tradition because it divides up the people.
Serfs, Slaves, Social Classes, And Free Individuals
WE have been sketching in the last four chapters the growth of civilized states out of the primitive Neolithic agriculture that began in Mesopotamia perhaps 15,000 years ago. It was at first horticulture rather than agriculture; it was done with the hoe before the plough, and at first it was quite supplementary to the sheep, goat, and cattle tending that made the living of the family tribe.
Earliest Slaves
The earlier wars did not involve remote or prolonged campaigns, and they were waged by levies of the common people. But war brought in a new source of possessions,plunder, and a new social factor, the captive. In the earlier, simpler days of war, the captive man was kept only to be tortured or sacrificed to the victorious god; the captive women and children were assimilated into the tribe.
First Independent Persons
So, in a few paragraphs, we trace the development of the simpler social structure of the early Sumerian cities to the complex city crowds, the multitude of individuals varying in race, tradition, education, and function, varying in wealth, freedom, authority, and usefulness, in the great cities of the last thousand years B. C.
Social Classes Three Thousand Years Ago
We may summarize the discussion of the last two chapters here by making a list of the chief elements in this complicated accumulation of human beings which made up the later Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations of from two thousand five hundred to three thousand years ago.
Classes Hardening Into Caste
Let us, before we leave this discussion of the social classes that we were developing in these first civilizations, devote a little attention to their fixity.
Caste In India
If now we turn eastward from this main development of civilization in the world between Central Asia and the Atlantic, to the social development of India in the 2,000 years next before the Christian era, we find certain broad and very Interesting differences. The first of these is that we find such a fixity of classes in process of establishment as no other part of the world can present.
System Of The Mandarins
In China we find a social system travelling along yet an-other, and only a very roughly parallel line to that followed by the Indian and Western civilizations. The Chinese civilization even more than the Hindu is organized for peace, and the warrior plays a small part in its social scheme.
Summary Of Five Thousand Years
In these last six chapters we have traced in outline the whole process by which, in the course of 5,000 or 6,000 years that is to say, in something between 150 and 200 generations...
Hebrew Scriptures And The Prophets
WE are now in a position to place in their proper relationship to this general outline of human history the Israelites, and the most remarkable collection of ancient documents in the world, that collection which is known to all Christian peoples as the Old Testament.
Saul, David, And Solomon
But the nature and position of their land was against the Hebrews, and their first king Saul was no more successful than their judges. The long intrigues of the adventurer David against Saul are told in the rest of the first book of Samuel, and the end of Saul was utter defeat upon Mount Gilboa.
Jews A People Of Mixed Origin
The Jews who returned, after an interval of more than two generations, to Jerusalem from Babylonia in the time of Cyrus were a very different people from the warring Baal worshippers and Jehovah worshippers, the sacrificers in the high places and sacrificers at Jerusalem of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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