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Growth Of The Forestry Idea
Our forests of the New World were so abundant when the early settlers landed on the Atlantic Coast that it was almost impossible to find enough cleared land in one tract to make a 40-acre farm. These thick, dense timberlands extended westward to the prairie country.
Our National Forests
Our National Forests include 147 distinct and separate bodies of timber in twenty-seven different states and in Alaska and Porto Rico. They cover more than 156,000,000 acres. If they could be massed together in one huge area like the state of Texas, it would make easier the task of hand-ling the forests and fighting fires.
National Forests Of Alaska
There are two great National Forests in Alaska. They cover 20,579,740 acres or about 5 1/2 percent. of the total area of Alaska. The larger of these woodlands, the Tongass National Forest, is estimated to contain 70,000,000,000 board feet of timber ripe for marketing.
Progress In State Forestry
The rapid depletion and threatened exhaustion of the timber supply in the more thickly populated sections of the East has prompted several of the states to initiate action looking toward the conservation of their timber resources. As far back as 1880, a forestry commission was appointed in New Hampshire to formulate a forest policy for the State.
Public Forests - The Playgrounds Of The Nation
The public forests are steadily increasing in popularity as the playgrounds of the Nation. The woodlands offer splendid opportunities for camping, hunting, fishing and outdoor life. Millions of motorists now spend their vacations in the government and state forests.
Solving Our Forestry Problems
A system of forestry which will provide sufficient lumber for the needs of our country and keep our forest land productive must be built on the extension of our public forests. Our National Forests are, at present, the one bright feature of future lumbering.
Why The United States Should Practice Forestry
Of late years the demand for lumber by the world trade has been very great. Most of the countries which have extensive forests are taking steps to protect their supplies. They limit cutting and restrict exports of timber. Both New Zealand and Switzerland have passed laws of this kind. Sweden exports much lumber, but by law forbids the cutting of timber in excess of the annual growth.
Why The Lumberman Should Practice Forestry
The lumber industry of this country can aid reforestation by practicing better methods. It can harvest its annual crop of timber without injuring the future production of the forests. It can limit forest fires by leaving the woods in a safe condition after it has removed the timber.
Why The Farmer Should Practice Forestry
The tree crop is a profitable crop for the average farmer to grow. Notwithstanding the comparatively sure and easy incomes which result from the farm woodlands that are well managed, farmers as a class neglect their timber. Not infrequently they sell their timber on the stump at low rates through ignorance of the real market value of the wood.
Putting Wood Waste To Work
For many years technical studies of wood were neglected. Detailed investigations of steel, concrete, oil, rubber and other materials were made but wood apparently was forgotten.
Wood For The Nation
Westward the course of forest discovery and depletion has taken its way in the United States. The pine and hardwood forests of the Atlantic and New England States first fell before the bite of the woodman's ax and the sweep of his saw.
Understanding Hay Fever
IS IT HAY FEVER OR A COLD? DOES your nose run during the spring, summer, or early fall? Does the roof of your mouth itch at that time of the year? Do your eyes itch? Do they tear? Have you been sneezing lately?
Hay Fever - How It Begins
At this point it may prove interesting to obtain a typical picture of the manner in which hay fever has its beginnings in many cases. Hay fever is a smooth worker. It stalks its human prey unsuspectingly. It acts very mildly and gentlemanly for the first season or two.
Hay Fever - Symptoms
The EYES may tear, itch, smart, become encrusted, pasty, bloodshot or bleary. Several or all of these conditions are present in eighty percent of hay fever patients. Those who suffer acute eye symptoms, experience a sensitivity to light which is technically termed a photophobia.
Pollens And Hay Fever
IF YOU have had hay fever for any length of time, you know in general that your condition is caused by the pollens of certain plants which bloom at a given time each year. If you are a new comer to the ranks of hay fever victims you probably have some vague and jumbled information that your affliction is related to flowers and plants and the pollens they give off.
How Flowers Reproduce
We shall describe the phenomenon of plant reproduction because in it, a major role is played by our enemy pollen grain, the villain of our hay fever drama.
Relation Of Pollination To The Cause Of Hay Fever
In the above description we passed over the process of pollination by indicating it as the method whereby pollen grains from the stamen are transferred to the stigmas of the flowers. While this is true, there are several methods by which this transfer is accomplished in the various kinds of plants.
Pollen History. Pollens have been described as being just so much yellow dust. In fact the name pollen means dust. When seen by the average individual pollens are observed in large quantities. As previously indicated, wind borne pollens are produced in huge amounts.
Three Kinds Of Hay Fever
PERHAPS in your mind the information on pollens given in the preceding chapter appears to be remote from your personal hay fever problem. You may be wondering about just how this information is to be applied. The answer is, that facts about pollens are intended to help you understand the workings of the hay fever plant world and how their activity is related to your hay fever.
Hay Fever Seasons
The plants known to be related to the cause of hay fever in the United States are generally studied in three groups, namely, Trees, Grasses and Weeds. Due to the fact that the plants of each group tend to pollinate during separate periods (with some overlapping), there is recognized in the United States three hay fever seasons as follows...
Tree Or Spring Hay Fever
OF THE three types of hay fever you are probably least familiar with that which is caused by tree pollens during the spring. This is to be expected because this type is the mildest of the three. Most persons are not even aware of the fact that they are allergic to the tree pollens.
The Hay Fever Trees
Among the names of trees whose pollen are known to produce hay fever there are some that are commonly known such as the elm, oak, and maple, and others that are generally less popular such as the hackberry, poplar, and alder. Our city dwelling population in the United States is much more familiar with the commercial by-products of the hay fever trees rather than with the trees themselves.
Recognizing And Locating Hay Fever Trees
Ailanthus. This tree was one of the very first whose pollen was known to cause respiratory discomfort. Unfortunately the observation was first made by botanists and was not generally known until years later.
Grass Or Early Summer Hay Fever
HAY FEVER that occurs during late spring and early summer due to the pollens of grasses is really the original hay fever. In the United States, ragweed may be public enemy number one in hay fever circles but in Europe, the grasses are still the hay fever big shots.
Grass Facts
In describing grasses as flowering plants we probably caused you to wonder what part of the grasses were flowers. And where these flowers hide themselves. The fact is, that most grasses contain perfect flowers. That is, they contain both pistils and stamens in the same flower.
Hay Fever Grasses
An ability to recognize the important hay fever grasses and a knowledge of their location and pollinating periods is an asset to any hay fever sufferer. There are as many as 1500 different kinds of grasses in the United States, and the pollens of any of them can cause symptoms in a sensitive individual...
Late Summer Or Fall Hay Fever
HAY FEVER in its worst and most widespread form is that which occurs during August and September. During this period the hay fever victims in the United States can be counted in the millions. The severity of attacks of late summer hay fever is generally much more intense and prolonged than those of the spring or early summer type.
How Weeds Are Spread
The farmer himself often introduces weeds into his cultivated fields. This occurs through the seeds of weeds that are mixed with grass seed and grain that he has bought for planting. In using hay for packing purposes, seeds are often shipped great distances to find their way into foreign soil.
Hay Fever Weeds
Food of the Gods, is the meaning of the latin name Ambrosiaceae, of the ragweed family. Poison of the devils would have been a more appropriate name for this family of weeds. Only a devil could have concocted such a brew as the ragweed pollen which each year adds thousands of new and unsuspecting innocents to its list of victims.
Ragweed Households
Of the ragweed family there seems to be four house-holds containing weeds that produce hay fever. In scientific plant language each household is called a genus and the members of the household are called species.
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