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Oratorio
Oratorio in Italy after Carissimi.—After the beginning made by Carissimi, the next work of importance in Oratorio is that of Alessandro Scarlatti, who established the Aria form as explained in the study of the Opera.
Evolution Of The Pianoforte
While the violin, on account of the simplicity of its construction, arrived early at a stage of perfection, the complicated mechanism of the pianoforte required many generations and many scores of more or less successful experiments to attain anything like a corresponding plane.
Early Italian Clavier Composers
Early Instrumental Music. -- The history of pianoforte composition and playing really begins with that of the pre-ceding keyed instruments with strings, to all of which the convenient name of Claviers will be given. As these early instruments were at first merely substitutes for the organ...
Early English And French Clavier Schools
English Schools to Henry VIII.—Popular music, both vocal and instrumental, was an early English institution. The many Folk-songs which have come down from a very early period bear witness to the English love of conviviality. Dance tunes, sometimes based on these Folk-songs, were played on the instruments of the minstrels, which, as early as 1484, included the clavichord...
German Polyphonic Clavier School
German Mastery of Polyphonic Music.—The Italians, with their quick perception of structural beauty, have been the pioneers in the invention and use of most art forms.
German Sonata Composers - To Haydn
Formation of Harmonic Design.—Side by side with the ultimate development of polyphonic music in its perfected instrumental form, the forms of the new harmonic style were being worked out, by long processes of development. Finally, just as the Fugue came to be adopted as the highest form of the old school, so the Sonata was chosen as the most dignified exponent of the new art.
Franz Joseph Haydn
The Three Great Sonata Writers.—In the year of C. P. E. Bach's death, 1788, three men had already entered the arena as champions of that Sonata Form to which he contributed so much. Haydn was then fifty-six, Mozart thirty-two and Beethoven eighteen years of age.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Mozart's Early Musical Training.—Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756. His father, himself of some reputation as a composer and as the author of the first German violin method, was quick to perceive the child's sensitiveness toward music...
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Formalism of Haydn and Mozart.—It has been seen that the forms of harmonic music, growing out of numerous and sometimes crude experiments, were brought to a high state of perfection through the genius of Haydn and Mozart...
Beethoven And The Sonata
Bach and Beethoven Contrasted.—We now consider the exact nature of the work which Beethoven did, in distinction from that of Haydn and Mozart. It has been said that Bach gave the Old Testament in music, while Beethoven gave the New; that is, that Bach consummated the old polyphom school, while Beethoven did an equal work for the new harmonic school.
The Violin And Its Makers
Change from the Viol to the Violin.—The reader who has studied the principles of construction and playing of the old string instruments, as explained in Lesson XV, or examined them in museums, will not have failed to note that they were complicated and limited in technic.
Violin Playing And Violin Music
Reciprocal Influences of Instruments and Composition. The development of the violin, of violin playing and violin music, in a certain sense shows reciprocal influences, and went hand in hand. This was the more certain because the composers who wrote for the instrument were also players, in almost every instance the virtuosi of their times.
Orchestra And Absolute Music
The Orchestra as a Means of Expression. —The most perfect means for expression in music is presented by the orchestra, which, in its complete form as shown today, is the result of a long development in many directions. To give us this magnificent mass-instrument required a sifting of the various instruments and the choice of those that offered the best possibilities...
Romantic Opera - Weber, Spohr, Marschner
The Romantic Movement.—The revolutionary spirit which arose in Europe toward the end of the 18th century had its counterpart in a similar intellectual and artistic reaction, commonly known as the Romantic Movement. In Literature, this movement was led by France; in Music, by Germany.
Music History - French School Of The Xixth Century
French Schools of Opéra.—As already explained, French opera is divided into two styles, known as Opéra Comique and Grand Opéra, according to the use of dialogue or recitative. Not that this is the only difference. The Grand Opéra is naturally adapted to subjects of a large or heroic scope; the Opéra Comique, like the Spieloper in Germany, to lighter episodes of a romantic or humorous nature.
Music History - Italian School Of The Xixth Century
Later Italian School.—While Meyerbeer was dominating the French stage and through it exerting a powerful influence on serious opera in all countries, the Italian school was recovering in part from the impulse given it by Rossini. The highly ornamented style which he brought into vogue was modified in the works of several composers who also gave more consideration to truth of expression.
Richard Wagner's Music Dramas - Other Schools
Wagner's Theory of the Music Drama.—Lohengrin, like The Flying Dutchman, was transitional in character and led into Wagner's third manner. It was his last opera; all his later works were known as music dramas.
Piano Playing And Composition : Clementi To Field
During the period after Mozart to the beginning of the Romantic movement, one name alone attains the first rank —that of Beethoven. At the same time there are several epoch-making pianists, whose compositions display talent rather than genius, but who have each rendered indisputable service in accomplishing the transition from the classic to the romantic composers.
Franz Peter Schubert
The rise of the Romantic school involves a greater free-dom in form, a fuller play of poetry and imagination, a general artistic evolution and independence in comparison with the formality of the Classic period.
Weber Mendelssohn
Schubert's operas had no appreciable effect on the Romantic composers, for the simple reason that they were never heard on account of the absurdities of their librettos and the weakness of their stage situations. At about the same period, a slightly older composer was beginning a series of works destined to place German Opera on a firm basis...
Robert Schumann
The Romantic Movement before Schumann. — Schubert gave a decided impetus to the Romantic movement through his spontaneous melody and deep fund of imagination. He infused poetry into the classic forms, his piano works in the small forms showed the way to future achievement in these lines, but especially he founded German song, which had scarcely been hinted at by Mozart and Beethoven.
Frederic Chopin
Schumann and Chopin.—Among Schumann's many able reviews of new music, showing the keenest critical insight, none exhibit a more just appreciation of an original talent than his article on some variations by a young composer who was destined to exert so deep and widespread an influence on piano style and piano composition.
Franz Liszt
The piano music of Chopin and Schumann reached the highest level attained during the Romantic period, in subtle originality of style and deep human sentiment, respectively.
Pianists And Teachers Since Liszt
Introduction.—The achievements of Liszt in de eloping piano technic, in enlarging the scope of piano laying through his masterly transcriptions, in variety and i tensity of interpretation, have brought results that are en rmous in extent and far-reaching in their developments to t e generations that have succeeded him.
Pianists And Teachers Since Liszt
One of the greatest living teachers in authori y and breadth of influence is Theodor Leschetizky, born in 1831. A pupil of Czerny, he began to teach at the age of fifteen, having played in public since 1842. He became a eacher in the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where he tau ht for many years.
The Art-song - Oratorio After Mendelssohn
Development of the Art-Song Idea. —A most si phase of musical activity is that centred around song for solo voice. In the period before the oper singing was the principal medium for vocal musi the Opera came a style of composition from which veloped the principle of the Aria, the latter dominat Opera and Oratorio for many years, as the for art-song for a solo voice.
Symphonic Poem In Germany
Wagner's Influence.—The genius of Wagner produced and applied to Opera a far richer and more complicated orchestration than had existed before his day. Since then, in many periods and in many countries, composers have tried to adopt his style, and apply it to the symphonic as well as to the operatic stage.
German Opera Since Wagner
Goldmark.—Among those opera composers wh. are not direct imitators of Wagner, Carl Goldmark ( eszthely;, Hungary, 1830) is the most noted. Son of a ca tor in a synagogue, he showed decided musical taste while still a child, and at twelve played the violin in public.
Music History - Old And New Schools In France
Saint-Saëns- The end of the 19th century in France has been marked by a decided contrast between the old and the new, Saint-Saëns and Massenet writing in the older style, while the pupils of Franck have striven after novelty in effect.
Musical Regeneration In Italy
Musical Decadence.—When a nation clings to its own musical ideas, and persistently disregards the growth and progress of other nations, it usually enters upon a period of decay. This is what took place in Italy during the 19th century, and the country that produced Palestrina and the Scarlattis seemed for a time to understand nothing but the trivial operatic melodies of Rossini's successors.
England And The Netherlands
Music in England.—In the Middle Ages, the much-used art of Counterpoint was developed by the people of England and the Netherlands. In the Elizabethan age, the music of England was scarcely less important than her literature.
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