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Entrance To Laerdal
AT Laerdalsoren (entrance to Laerdal) begins the superb highway which connects the Sogne fjord with the city of Christiania and other parts of the country. There is no other road in Norway, traversing such a long stretch of country, which passes in the midst of such glorious and diversified scenery.
Farm Of Nystuen
AT a distance of twenty-four miles from the church of Borgund, after a romantic drive, I came to the mountain farm and post-station of Nystuen, situated on the lonely shores of the Utrovand, 3162 feet above the level of the sea, and near the highest point on the route.
Southern Norway
Norway at its southern end forms a bold mountainous promontory, about 200 miles wide at its widest part, and 125 miles in length, terminating at Lindesnæs, in lat. 57° 59'. This vast territory is bounded on the west, by the North Sea, and on the south and east by the Skager Rack, whose inner extremity, so to speak, is the Christiania fjord, which runs from north to south.
Thelemarken
THELEMARKEN is One of the most characteristic provinces of Norway ; it was always with pleasure that I travelled through its valleys and mingled with its inhabitants. These are tall, well-built, graceful, and intelligent-looking, reminding me of the Dalecarlians in Sweden, described in Vol. II.
Upper Thelemarken
UPPER THELEMARKEN is rich in the sombre and weird landscape of its deep valleys, and its mountains are dotted with numerous lakes. The hunter roams over its forests in search of game and wild reindeer; the angler finds in its streams and lakes trout which send joy to his heart.
Songadal
THE scenery of the upper end of Lake Totak is impressive, the Raudland fjelds rising 2840 feet above its deep green water. From here the narrow. Songadal, in one place entirely blocked by immense rocks, wends its way in a north-westerly direction.
History Of Music - Introduction
The purpose of the study of the history of music is to trace the development of the many phases which make up modern music which we cannot but regard as a great social force, an intellectual, an uplifting force.
Music Of The Chinese, Japanese And Hindoos
When we study the music of the early period of the human race, we find no records such as we are storing today in our libraries. We must depend upon the discoveries of archaeologists in the buried cities of early civilizations.
Music Of The Babylonians, Egyptians And Hebrews
History is a record of changing conditions. Nations rise into prominence and fall again ; cities are built to be torn down by conquerors ; even the face of the earth has changed since the days when the scions of the Aryan race began to leave their home in Central Asia.
Music Of The Greeks : Scales
When we think of Greece, it is Athens, the centre of Greek art and culture, that comes to mind. An ancient city, Athens, as history teaches us. The record is that it was founded by Cecrops, who brought a colony from Egypt, in 1556 B. C., a period when Egypt was a centre of power, wealth, education and science.
Music Of The Greeks
So far, everything is clear enough ; but the next step is not quite so sure. The Greeks spoke of the Dorian Octave, the Phrygian Octave, and so on ; and the word Octave, used in this way, has been thought to be synonymous with Scale, which is doubtful, for the following reasons: The standard instrument of the Greeks was the octave lyre.
Ecclesiastical System
The Power that rules in the affairs of men seems to have made provision for the elevation of the whole race by diffusing at intervals of centuries, the treasures of art, science and thought accumulated by a nation of unusual power and energy.
Notation
The earliest system of Notation, attributed to Boethius, the Roman philosopher, seems to have been the placing of letters over the syllables, thus: C C D B C D - MY Country Tis Of Thee. During the period of history dominated by Pope Gregory the Great, a change was made in this system by which capital letters, small letters and double letters were used...
Music Outside The Church
Up to this, our study of music in the Christian Era has traced the development of the art as fostered by the Christian Church, and mainly among the people of Southern Europe, in whom there was a strong admixture of the Latin blood and spirit. Before going farther on this line we will look into the record of music among the races of Northern Europe.
History Of Music - Polyphonic Development
In the Introduction attention was called to the fact that the labors of musicians to develop an art of music varied between the effort to make artistic use of the material of music, that is, to give it definite form, and to make it express the feelings of mankind; the first is in the line of construction, the second, content.
History Of Music - Paris School
Influence of Art on Music. All of the fine arts, with the exception of Music had, by the year 1100, reached a fairly high stage of development due, no doubt, to the fact that they are to a great extent composed of concrete materials. Music, owing to its lack of the concrete and the inability of men literally to place their hands upon its material, had lagged behind...
History Of Music - Gallo-belgic School
The development of any art, and more especially Music, requires the dominance of wealth, learning and general civilizing forces, to form an epoch-marking school. Paris for a time satisfactorily filled these conditions, and then gave place to a school, stronger and better equipped : that of the Netherlands.
History Of Music - The English School
The English Polyphonic School is at once the least important and the most peculiar of all the schools of the Poly-phonic Period. It is usually ignored by the writers on early music, not because there was no musical culture, but because there was not continuous and original development.
History Of Music - School Of The Netherlands
The most important asset of a nation is its commercial activity, for upon that depends its art life. The fine arts are to an extent luxuries, and until a nation has, by commercial activity, acquired wealth, they cannot be earnestly cultivated, for all arts require from the artist his entire time and life...
History Of Music - Italian School
Italy the New Centre.—Music developed in the Nether-lands because of commercial supremacy and the consequent world association. We shall now see it pass to Italy, but because of a very different reason.
Palestrina And His Influence On Music
A Church Composer.—But one master of the Italian Polyphonic schools is worthy of lengthy notice, more because of his influence on the music of the Church than his contribution to the new instrumental school then only in its infancy.
Musical Instruments
Classification of Instruments.—The means for the production of musical sound are few in number, and of such universality and antiquity that we cannot say when, how, or by whom they were invented. Modern skill has not added one new means, but has simply improved the contrivances by which musical sound is produced.
The Organ, Organ Playing And Organ Music
In the book of Genesis it is written : Jubal, he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. It is not to be understood that the word organ in this passage meant an instrument anything like that heard in our churches at the present day.
Beginning Of The Opera
The Renaissance.—The Opera, in its inception, was literary rather than musical in nature. It was a result of what is known as the Renaissance, so-called because its most prominent manifestation in Italy was a revival of the learning of the ancients.
Oratorio And Development Of The Opera
The First Oratorio.—The novelty of the new style, which was called the stilo rappresentativo (representative style), the vigor and freedom it gave to an impressive delivery of the text, aroused universal attention. Among the composers who essayed it was Emilio del Cavaliere (1550-1599).
Alessandro Scarlatti And The Neapolitan School
The Neapolitan School.—What in the Venetian school had been a reaction in favor of form and melody became the established practice of the Neapolitan school. Political disturbances had hindered the spread of the Opera in southern Italy, particularly in Naples, but at the end of the 17th century it assumed the position formerly occupied by Florence and Venice.
Singing And Singers
Early Methods of Singing.—As has been noted by the reader, music, up to this time, developed principally along vocal lines. We have no details as to the character of the training of singers among the Chaldeans, Egyptians and Greeks except such as indicate that their idea of singing was a sort of musical declamation.
Opera In France And England
Spread of Italian Opera.—The fame of Italian opera soon spread to other countries. Princes and kings, eager to hear the new style of music, held out golden inducements to Italian composers and singers to come to their courts ; it was generally thought that none but an Italian could compose an opera or sing an aria.
Opera In Germany - Handel And Gluck
Opera in Germany.—The introduction of the opera into Germany dates from 1627. In that year a German translation of Rinuccini's Dafne, which, it will be remembered, was the text of Peri's first opera, was set to music by Heinrich Schuetz (1585-1672) and performed on the occasion of the wedding of the Landgraf of Hesse.
Mozart To Rossini
The Opera after Gluck.—After Gluck the first great name is that of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Haydn had indeed written a number of operas, but they were, in the main, light in character and exercised no influence what-ever on the development of the form. At the age of twelve, Mozart had composed two operas...
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