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Cell Division
AMONG the vital phenomena exhibited by cells and visible through the microscope, none is so strikingly distinctive of living matter as is the process of cell-division. Closely connected with it are some of the greatest problems of biology.
Organic Functions
THE facts dealing with the physiology of organisms, the activities associated with that which we call life are often designated Organic Functions.
Life Processes
NUTRITION thus, as has been pointed out, makes it possible to classify most organisms as animals or plants. Yet there are many unicellular forms in which both kinds of nutrition go on at the same time ; that is, the forms may possess a mouth. for the ingestion of solid food and green coloring matter, chlorophyll, for the manufacture of starchy food from gaseous matter.
Origin Of Species Of Plants And Animals
THERE are in the museums of the world at the present time representatives of several hundred thousand probably more than a million kinds or species of plants and animals, and thousands of new species are being discovered and named each year. A single group of insects has classified under it more species than there are stars to be seen in the heavens with the unaided eye on a clear night.
Evidences Of Organic Descent; Morphology And Embryology
THE facts of biology which admit of adequate explanation only in connection with the theory of descent are grouped by Romanes and other writers on organic evolution under the heads of morphology, embryology, classification, paleontology, distribution and domestication. In all these lines the facts are drawn together by a strong thread of unity.
Evidences Of Organic Evolution; Classification, Palbontology, Distribution, Domestication
IF a child in the kindergarten be given an assortment of cards of various colors and shapes and a number of boxes into which to put them, it becomes evident that the natural tendency is to group together the cards according to their striking resemblances, for most children probably of color.
Factors Of Evolution - Selection
ALTHO concerning the truth of descent there is now no doubt in the minds of biologists, there are many and various views as to the causes or factors which have brought about the origin of species of plants and animals. Most prominent of the theories concerning the factors of evolution is that of Natural Selection.
Sexual Selection
IN building up the theory of Natural Selection Darwin found that while this theory was sufficient to explain the useful in organic structures it did not sufficiently explain - that class of phenomena which go to constitute the Beautiful.
Factors Of Evolution Other Than Selection
THE most important question raised in biological science by Darwin's work is whether natural selection has been the sole, or but the main, cause of the descent of species, or organic evolution.
Heredity
NO TOPIC in all biology has received so much attention in recent times, both from investigators and from the intelligent public at large, as Heredity. The reason for this interest is to be found in the importance of heredity for the individual human life, its practical importance in breeding plants and animals and its bearing on the evolutionary theory of biology.
Adaptation
ALTHO but one element of organic evolution, the origin of species, has been emphasized in the preceding pages, it has been noticed perhaps in the various discussions brought up that evolution is concerned not only with the great variety of life kinds, but also with the adaptedness or adaptiveness of life kinds to various sorts of life conditions.
Study Of Pictures - Introduction
For the enjoyment of a masterpiece an understanding is necessary of the principles of Art, of its history, and of its aims. Just as the appreciation of Nature's grandeur demands the capacity for depth of feeling, to save one from the pettiness of such a remark as that of the untraveled young girl, who said, when, viewing Niagara for the first time, 'How pretty!'
Composition
Like Leonardo, Botticelli possessed the rare, gift of representing movement, rhythm, in his painting. This is, possibly, the first element of composition. It is the quality which gives life to painting. Everything else depends upon that. Art is not imitation of nature, even though painting must be expressed in an ordered arrangement of light and shade, of color and line.
Relation Of Poetry And Painting
In the Corcoran Gallery at Washington hangs a painting, not famous, but very interesting because it shows us the lovers Michelangelo and Vittoria Colonna, viewing together a work of art exhibited before the celebrated Pope Julius II., and on the Pontiff's other hand we observe the seraphic figure of the painter Raphael.
Painting - The Renaissance Schools
It is in the Florentine School that 'the perfect expression of human emotion' is attempted, continues Ruskin, '-the showing of the effects of passion in the human face and gesture. . . . Whether you take Raphael for the culminating master of expressional art in Italy, or Leonardo, or Michael Angelo, you will find that the whole energy of the national effort which produced those masters had its root in Florence; not at Urbino or Milan.
German, Flemish, And Spanish Painting, And The Dutch School
The painting of the so called Modern Schools,the Romantic Realistic Schools, we may style them; dates from the seventeenth century masters, Rem brandt and Velasquez. They were the great Romantic realists, who taught us that it is sympathy and treatment, rather than subject, which makes great art. Rembrandt's inspiration during his most fruitful and successful years was the beautiful Saskia, his sweetheart and wife, whose portrait accompanies this chapter.
Romantic British And French Schools, And American Painting
In Greece, Homer's poetry preceded the Golden Age of Phidias in sculpture, and in England again the poetry of the Lake School and of Shelley and Keats preceded the great rise of Romantic British painting.
Pictures To See In New York
'Painting,' says Emerson, 'teaches me the splendor of color and the expression of form. Then is my eye opened to the eternal picture which nature paints in the street, with moving men and children, beggars and fine ladies, draped in red and green and blue and gray; long-haired, grizzled, white-faced, black-faced, wrinkled, giant, dwarf, expanded, elfish, capped and based by heaven, earth and sea.'
Pictures To See In Boston
To the American painter, Gilbert Stuart, many portraits of Washington in various cities are attributed. But, according to the artist, the Boston Athenaeum owns the only original painting in this country, and this picture is loaned to the Museum of Fine Arts Stuart made many replicas, of course, and these may be seen elsewhere.
Washington And Other American Cities
Our National Capital is far richer in collections of fine pictures than seems to be generally known, though the steady stream of visitors to the National Gallery of Art, the Corcoran Gallery, and the Library of Congress suggests that many are aware of the opportunities here.
Pictures To See In London
The National Gallery owns no fewer than five great works attributed to Raphael. A famous one is the somewhat Byzantine 'Madonna degli Ansidei,' illustrating the pyramidal composition. This picture was bought from the Duke of Marlborough for 70,000 pounds, said to be the largest sum ever given by a public gallery for a single painting.
Pictures To See In Paris
The greatest art collection of modern times perhaps of all time is to be found in Paris. It is the world-renowned Museum of the Louvre. Here are treasured the great works of dead masters, while those of the more recent painters and sculptors are, of course, in the Luxembourg on the other side of the River Seine.
Pictures To See In Other European Countries
In making a tour of European galleries, one may very conveniently start at Holland, visit Belgium and Germany, and then be the better prepared to appreciate the Renaissance painting in its true environment, Italy.
Over A Century Of The White House
Thousands of pilgrims from every State in the Union, hundreds of tourists from every country in the world, visit the White House in the course of each year. To them the building and grounds form a sort of Mecca to which they are drawn through much reading, day by day, of the dramas, comedies and tragedies enacted within its beloved walls.
First, Second And Third White Houses
AS STATED in the foregoing chapter, the White House, considered simply as a structure, may be divided historically into three periods. These periods may, for the sake of convenience, be said to embrace what may be called the first, second and third White Houses, thus: First, The President's House - 1800 to 1814, from its formal opening under President John Adams to its burning by the British.
White House Life Of The Roosevelts
THEODORE ROOSEVELT entered the White House for the first time as President of the United States, the twenty-sixth Chief Executive, on the fourteenth day of September, 1901, ten days after taking the oath, at Buffalo, following the death of Mr. McKinley.
Inaugurations Washington To Buchanan
THE ceremony of inauguration of a President of the United States begins at the White House, while the vital feature, the oath, has usually been a part of the imposing scene at the Capitol. Nearly every incoming President has first driven to the White House, there to be formally received by the outgoing President.
Inaugurations Lincoln To Roosevelt
AT THE time of his first election to the Presidency, Abraham Lincoln told a friend that one night he looked into the mirror and saw a 'ghostly face.' He said that he told his wife of the incident, and that she regarded it as an omen of evil, but that it was 'Abraham's duty to go to Washington, whether for better or for worse.'
White House - Later 'first Gentlemen' And Their Day's Work
THE PRESIDENT is accessible to private individuals who desire to see him on business, and he has also set apart an hour or two on certain days in each week for receiving the friendly visits of the public. The President never accepts invitations to dine, or makes social visits. An invitation by the President is accepted, notwithstanding a previous engagement.
White House - 'First Ladies' And Presidents' Widows
THERE have been twenty-six Presidents, but as there were sometimes two or three 'First Ladies' in a single administration, the number of the mistresses and hostesses of the White House is thirty-two. These include nineteen wives as follows: Mrs. Washington, Mrs. John Adams, Mrs. Dolly Madison, Mrs. Monroe, Mrs. John Quincy Adams, Mrs. John Tyler (President Tyler's first wife, an invalid), Mrs. John Tyler (President Tyler's second wife).
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