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England - Warkworth And Its Hermitage
WITHIN sound of the North Sea and circled about by the reflecting waters of the river Coquet, stand the massive ruins of Warkworth Castle, offering to the in-formed imagination silent yet eloquent witness to many a stirring and picturesque page of English history.
England - A Highland Noble's Home
FIVE or six miles from the head of Loch Fyne a small bay indents the west side of the lake, and on a gently-sloping lawn in the centre of that bay stands Inverary Castle, the chief seat of the illustrious family of Argyll. It is a fitting home for the head of a great Highland clan.
Influence Of Food Upon Man
Food exerts so great an influence upon man that even the size of his body may be essentially affected thereby. Thus, we see that nations which nourish themselves with articles of diet rich in nitrogenous elements, that is, with plenty of meat, in addition to a sufficient quantity of the other main groups of foodstuffs, e.g., the English, the Swedes, and other nations living in a similar way, attain to a considerable physical development.
Influence Of Food Upon The Nervous System
Many wild animals become remarkably tame when deprived of a meat diet. Justus von Liebig noticed in Giessen a young bear that was very tame when no meat was given him, but became wild and unmanageable when again fed upon meat. Tamers of animals, moreover, make use of this fact, simply by bringing up young animals, whenever possible, entirely without flesh food.
Influence Of Foodstuffs Upon Teeth, Pharynx, And Vocal Apparatus
Of all the substances which are injurious to the teeth, acid saliva, as a primary factor, plays the most important role. This condition may be brought about by certain articles of food, such as sugar (Holz), which increase the acidity in the cavities of the teeth, injurious results following. A plentiful meat diet will also cause acid saliva.
Influence Of Food Upon The Digestive Organs
When we examine the skull, found in the Neander valley, of the primitive man who lived so many thousands of years before us, we are at once struck by the colossal size of the jaws. It would appear that these were necessary in the prehistoric man in order that he might be able to break up thoroughly the indigestible raw foods, not previously prepared by cooking.
Influence Of Food Upon Other Important Organs
After the food has been prepared and taken up by the blood, as described in the preceding chapter, it is carried to the liver by the portal vein. Here the most injurious and poisonous substances are destroyed by the liver, or are transformed into innocuous compounds. Poisons which have not been broken up by the action of the hydrochloric acid can be destroyed by the liver.
Fundamental Laws Of Rational Feeding
IF man and beast are to live and thrive, they must take unto themselves the same substances as those of which they are composed. Here, as so often in the study of dietetics, we see the rule proven, that like consists of like, at least in so far as the fundamental constituents are concerned. I might say that man is what he eats, or that he eats that which he is.
Nutritive Salts And Their Great Importance
It is a matter of common observance, how eagerly dogs will lick up blood. That this is not to be ascribed to the nutritive value of the albumin-content of the blood is shown by the fact that when they are given their choice of meat or blood they will at once turn to the blood. There must, then, be a difference in taste, and, indeed, blood is distinguished by its salty taste.
Water
Like the plant, man cannot live without water. A plant may have at its disposal ever so much of the nutritive salts, without which it cannot live, but they are of no use to it unless it receives water, be this rainwater or dew, or that provided by the helping hand of man ; water is absolutely required to bring these salts in solution, so that they may be absorbed by the roots.
Hints Concerning Diet In Various Climates And During Different Seasons Of The Year
It is the firm opinion of the writer that man fares best when he follows the indications of Nature in everything, since she gives proof in all her doings of a most wonderful perspicacity. This good management is well shown by the way in which, in every climate, she has caused to grow in abundance just the proper foods, and those best suited to the climate.
Several Observations Concerning Cooking, Especially That Of Fish And Vegetables
Were we able to take our foods in the form in which they have been created by nature, with all their useful components, and the important ferments contained therein, it would really form a complete diet from which we could derive much benefit. Our jaws and organs, however, are not so constituted as to be able to bear such a diet, unless we should, like the fruit-eaters, live upon fruit alone.
Hints Upon The Mode Of Eating, And The Rational Division Of Meals
When one sits down to a meal he should not be restricted or harassed in any way, for just as a singer will be unable to sing well when not in the humor for doing so will our nutrition fail to progress satisfactorily when we are not well disposed for it.
Injurious Modes Of Feeding
THE celebrated English physician, Harvey, who lived in the seventeenth century, treated one of his patients, suffering from obesity, by a diet consisting almost exclusively of meat, that is to say, albumin. As a result of this, the patient became much thinner. It should be mentioned, however, that such a diet, which since then has often been resorted to in obesity, causes a series of unpleasant symptoms.
Consequences Of Harmful And Insufficient Diet
It is a well-known fact that house animals, as poultry, for instance, very readily become diseased when they are not sufficiently or properly fed. In animals living in the open the same thing is often observed. The hazel hen, or heath pout, for instance, is greatly endangered by certain small organisms, the Trichostrongylus gracilis.
Tuberculosis As A Consequence Of Deficient Nutrition
It is a remarkable fact that the intelligent anthropoid apes which are exhibited in the various places of entertainment all die of tuberculosis, as do nearly all monkeys which are kept in Europe. It is rare that any of them die of any other disease.This strange fact has excited my interest since a long time, and several years ago, in London, I studied the monkeys in a circus, with a view to elucidating this particular matter.
Untoward Consequences Of Overnutrition
When our food tastes good we are easily led to eat more than is necessary to satisfy our hunger, which is undoubtedly the chief object in eating. The enjoyment of our food is, however, an actual necessity, for when we enjoy what we eat we generally digest it much better than we would otherwise.
Good And Evil Effects Of Various Food Substances
THERE is no article of food which more closely resembles our tissues than the meat of animals, and probably hardly any from which greater amounts of albumin can be so easily absorbed and digested by our bodies.
Concerning Slaughter Wastes, Sausages, And The Value Of Blood-pudding
Certain organs of the body are possessed of high nutritive value and characterized by their content of useful substances such as phosphorus and lecithin. The liver is an organ belonging to this class. Its tissues contain a large quantity of carbohydrates, while meat in general, with the exception of horse meat, contains only minimal quantities of the carbohydrates.
Advantages Of Meat In Small Quantities, And Its Disadvantages In Large Amounts
We would probably not be justified in going so far as to consider small amounts of meat as a poison, as is done by so many; even as quite limited quantities of alcohol should not be regarded as a poison. The latter may, indeed, be of some service to many. Meat in small amounts is not only useful, but is absolutely necessary for growing children.
Concerning The Necessity Of A Humane Method Of Killing Animals
When an animal is tormented its glands give off quite an amount of secretion, as the excitement develops in them an increased activity, during which the ductless glands secrete certain poisonous substances, as has been shown in our work on Old Age Deferred.
Fish Diet
The doctrines of certain churches, as the Roman Catholic, the Greek Orthodox, as well as the Anglican Church, forbid the use of meat during certain weeks of each year, and also on one day of each week, and recommend the use of fish. This fact corroborates the correctness of the statement made in our work on Old Age Deferred that the practice of a religious faith has a good influence in prolonging our life.
Advantages Of A Fish Diet
With the present high cost of living, when the poorer classes cannot afford to buy meat, I cannot see why a fish diet is not more generally indulged in. With our improved transportation facilities we are able to send sea fish, which in some regions are caught in such enormous quantities, to a great distance, and yet are able to supply the consumer so that they may be eaten on the same day.
Oysters And Shellfish
Oysters are perhaps the only animal food which we eat raw, and, so to speak, living, for they are only healthful when they are perfectly fresh. It is possibly just this circumstance which exerts the stimulating and excitant action of the oyster diet, which, as we shall refer to later, is said to have an influence upon sexual activity.
Fish-roe And Caviar
It is really remarkable that such a useful food as that afforded by fish-eggs is not more used. I have, myself, experimented with the roe of various fishes, even some kinds seldom used. I ate this food daily for some time; and while some of the varieties really have but little taste, when fried in butter, they constitute quite an agreeable and at the same time very nourishing food.
Milk Diet
That which principally characterizes milk as a food, and places it above other nutritive substances, is the fact that it contains all of the main nutrient groups, thus rendering it a complete food. This is proven by the fact that young animals, and young children, too, live upon it and are developed by means of it.
Various Kinds Of Milk
That sheep's milk, among all the various varieties, is the one containing the most nourishment has already been stated in the previous chapter. It is strange, therefore, that we very rarely use this milk, especially since it does not have the unpleasant odor peculiar to goats' milk, and also since about 5 to 6 liters of milk are given daily by the milch sheep.
Sour-milk Products
When milk remains for a time in open vessels, various forms of fungi fall into it from the air; among them, also, the Bacterium acidi lactici. In summer especially fermentation occurs at a temperature of from 20 to 30 C. The milk-sugar may, in a greater or less quantity, be transformed into lactic acid.
Various Milk Products: Cream, Buttermilk
When milk is left standing the fat comes to the top, and when the milk is drunk the first portion taken tastes much better, and is also more nutritious, owing to the fatty content. The upper part of the milk contained in a bottle or in a large pan is the cream. The chief characteristic of cream is its great amount of fat, out of which butter is formed.
Cheese
The different varieties of cheese are produced according as sweet or sour milk, cream, or skim milk or whole milk is used, as well as according to the pressure exerted and the quantity of water which the milk still contains. Gervais and various cream cheeses are made from cream, or whole milk and cream, and are either not pressed at all or only very slightly so.
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