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Le Prophete
WE are prepared for a rustic scene by a prelude on the bagpipe. As the curtain rises, we see a Dutch landscape in the neighbourhood of Dordrecht with the Meuse in the background. On the right is a feudal castle ; on the left are dependent cottages and farm buildings ; and in the left foreground are sacks of wheat, rustic benches, tables, etc.
Lohengrin
IN Lohengrin each Act has its prelude, or Vorspiel. The prelude to the first Act is constructed entirely upon the motiv of The Grail. It begins on high notes of the violins in eight-part harmony, and the four solo violins are used in such combination with the first, second, and third flutes and the first and second oboes as to produce enchanting harmony.
Rigoletto
THE short prelude announces the terrible nature of the catastrophe that dominates all the scenes of frivolity and dissipation that lead up to it. On one of these scenes the curtain rises. It is a revel in the Duke of Mantua's palace. The dancing is accompanied throughout by orchestras on the stage.
La Traviata
ATER a short instrumental prelude, the curtain rises on a brilliant scene in the house of the beautiful Violetta Valery soprano), the reigning belle of Paris. She is receiving her guests.
Faust
THE short overture by its mysterious and somewhat gloomy character expresses Faust's dark thoughts and solitary brooding. Out of the heavy string passages a gleam of hope from the wood-wind arises. It ends with a few solemn and slow chords. The curtain rises. Faust (tenor) is alone in his study. The expiring lamp seems typical of his own sinking life.
Tristan Und Isolde
THE prelude to the first Act of Tristan und Isolde begins with a sad wail, The Confession of Love, a short theme on the violoncello, followed by The Desire, on the oboe, supported by two clarinets, the cor anglais, and two bassoons. This is four times repeated with significant rests between. Next comes The Glance, announced on the cello.
Die Meistersinger
THE overture is a majestic and superb composition. Heavy chords introduce the motiv of The Meistersinger on the full orchestra, and after it is worked up at some length, there follows the expressive and tender theme of Waking Love, on the flute and clarinet.
Aida
ACT I. — A short fugued introduction played pianissimo precedes the rising of the curtain and produces a feeling of vague mystery which will frequently be experienced throughout the work.
Carmen
THE prelude to Carmen is built on several characteristic themes ; it is the sketch on which the colours of the picture are tried. Without preparation, on a rhythm, symmetrical and even hard, a fanfare bursts forth, — an almost vulgar figure, but joyous and dizzying: it is the fanfare of the bull-fight.
Das Rheingold
THE curtain rises on the rocky bed of the Rhine wrapped in greenish twilight. The water, blue above, is lighter, and flows to the right. In the centre, towers a conical peak around which the Rhine-daughter, Woglinde, is gracefully swimming, singing her watch-song. Her sisters, Flosshilde and Wellgunde, join her and sport among the crags.
Die Walkure
THE prelude opens with the motiv of the Tempest with gusts of wind, and rain pattering on the strings. At the 17th bar it is intensified by four more double basses. The flutes, oboes, clarinets, cor anglais, horns, and bassoons join in at the 37th bar, and at the 63d bar comes the big brass with the Incantation of the Thunder.
Siegfried
THE prelude opens with a soft tremolo on the drums and Reflection, on the bassoons. Muted cellos bring in Wotan's Rage, and the violas recall the "Amassing of the Treasure. Then for a few bars, the violas and 'cellos change parts with these two motive, while the cor anglais and bassoons give forth Bondage.
Die Gotterdammerung
PRELUDE. —Hail to the World appears in the opening bar and two bars later the bas-soon, clarinet, and bass-clarinet introduce The Rhine. This prelude is very short : the curtain rises at the eighteenth bar. It is night on the Walkyrie rock. A glow illumines the background. The eldest Norn lies under the fir-tree ; the second, on a bank of stone before the entrance to the cavern...
What Is Cancer?
It is impossible, these days, not to be aware of cancer. The diagnosis and the clinical course of prominent political figures and of movie stars are carefully detailed in the newspapers. A football player develops acute leukemia, and sport columnists discuss whether he should participate in competition.
Cancer In Man And Animals
In numbers, among the 180 million people in the United States of 1960, approximately a half million develop cancer during one year, and approximately 280,000 die of cancer during one year. It is more convenient to express these facts in ratios, using 100,000 people as a standard number and a year as a standard time period.
How Cancer Is Diagnosed
In the foregoing chapter we have sketched some facts about cancer as it affects populations. In this and the following two chapters we shall deal with cancer as it affects individuals.
How Cancer Is Treated
The key to successful treatment of cancer is to diagnose it at a stage when the cancer can be removed entirely from the body. We have at our disposal two methods by which such removal can be accomplished : by surgery, or by X-rays.
Outcome Of Cancer
One of the unpleasant things about cancer is its tenacity. It hangs on, to reappear years after it should have been removed and the patient presumably cured. Even in 1878, when A. Von Winiwarter summarized the results of the German surgeons, it was realized that patients had to be observed for several years before conclusion could be reached that a successful procedure had been carried out.
Weapons Against Cancer
In the preceding 5 chapters we have discussed the broad ex-tent of the cancer problem, and what we can do now for cancer as it appears as a clinical problem. Even now, approximately one-third of all patients with cancer are being saved, and this proportion could be raised perhaps to one-half by the full application to the whole population of all that is known and all that can be done.
Environmental Hazards That May Cause Cancer
In 1775, a prominent English surgeon, Percivall Pott, broke a leg and spent his time of recovery writing a book on his observations. He devoted a few pages to the subject of cancer of the scrotum in chimney sweeps, which he attributed to long exposure and intimate contact with soot. This was the first clear description of an occupational cancer.
Cancer Inducing Stimuli - Radiant Energy And Cancer
Among the cancer inducing stimuli of our environment is the very energy source upon which life itself depends, the light of the sun. The ultraviolet radiation story begins with the clinical observation of Paul Unna of Germany, who in 1894 related exposure to sunlight with chronic skin changes and skin cancer.
Carcinogens In Our Atmospheric Environment
Our lungs are one of our main contacts with the outside world. We breathe about 20 times every minute, inhaling and exhaling a pint of air with each breath. When the air we breathe contains impurities, the lungs ordinarily have ways of getting rid of them. This is done by coughing, or by more complicated processes within the lining of the bronchial tubes or of the lung tissue.
Biological Carcinogens
The Role And Resurgence Of Viruses As cancer-info-Producing Agents. To the two great classes of agents that can cause cancer, chemicals and radiant energy, we now add a group of self-reproducing giant molecules called viruses.
Cancer, A Diversion Into The Meaning Of The Cause
In the last three chapters we have concerned ourselves with three major classes of external stimuli that have been defined as carcinogenic, or being able to evoke a reaction that eventuates in cancer. Are such relationships causal?
Cancer Cells And Organisms
The basic biological unit of plant and animal life is the cell. All higher animals that multiply by sexual reproduction begin with the union of the male and female sex cells, which are specialized cell units containing only half of the genetic material characteristic of the species.
Cancer - Within The Cell
The new biological frontier. It is no exaggeration to say that the last decade has witnessed discoveries concerning the structure, synthesis and function of living matter that are as profound and as far-reaching as the discoveries of Louis Pasteur and other microbiologists of the 19th century.
Birth And The Behavior Of Cancer
Even three decades ago, there was widespread scientific agreement that the production of cancer could be explained by one of two biological processes. One was called somatic mutation, proposing a genetic change in the body cells as the basic mechanism; the other was the invasion of the cell by a virus, endowing the infected cells with cancer properties.
Cancer And Heredity
The question, Is it heredity or environment? is now seldom heard, because it is really not very meaningful. The effects of any environmental stimulus on an organism are modified by the inherited traits of the organism, and the inherited traits and capabilities of an organism can be modified by the external or internal environment.
Cancer And Hormones
Internal regulators of growth. One of the most interesting and best studied areas of biological research is endocrinology. It concerns the glands of internal secretion, which produce chemicals that are important in the growth and regulation of many functions of the body.
Cancer And The Food We Eat
Nutrition and cancer. Life depends upon energy and building blocks that are derived from food. The main sources of energy are carbohydrates, such as starches, which are broken down to sugars, and fats, which are converted into fatty acids. Proteins are necessary not only as energy sources but as building blocks that are reconstructed with the amino acids derived from proteins.
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