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Nature The Only Faultless And Perfect Model For Art
As all art originates in, so it all terminates in nature. The painter, and indeed the poet, may literally find sermons in stones, in the study of the hues and tints and shapes of rocks and mountains, and excellence in everything. No object, indeed, ought to be without its use to the artist in either walk...
Deduction Of The Principles Of The Picturesque
HAVING enunciated the principles of delineation in art, and traced their foundation in nature, we must next proceed to point out and to define what may aptly be termed the principles of the picturesque, constituting as they do the foundation of tasteful design in every branch of art alike.
Grandeur Its Several Elements, With Their Enumeration And Definition
I will next proceed to the examination of the different principles and elements of picturesque design in their order. And first as to the principle of grandeur. Grandeur as it affects the mind is of a varied character, for the most part pleasurable, with a measure of pain.
Examples In Each Art
We have now to examine some examples in each art, illustrative of the truth of the principles which in the preceding section I have endeavoured to lay down.
Beauty, Its Several Elements, With Their Enumeration And Definition
The principle of beauty originates in an affection of the mind of a pure character, being directly and entirely pleasurable in its nature, without any admixture of pain ; and, as regards its results, being calculated rather to soothe than to ex-cite us, and to call forth feelings of gratification and admiration, unalloyed by any less agreeable sensations.
Examples In Each Art
We have now to consider some of the leading examples of beauty which are afforded by various productions in each of the arts. The Cartoons of Raphael, already several times referred to in the foregoing pages, offer some of the finest samples of the beautiful in the art of painting, although with the elements of grandeur, and, as regards certain of them, with those of pathos, too, they are also eminently endowed.
Pathos, Its Several Elements With Their Enumeration And Definition
Pathos originates in, or is caused by an affection of the mind of a very vivid character, containing about an equal measure of pain and of pleasure. The emotions which pathos excites are mainly those of pity, sympathy, and melancholy.
Examples In Each Art
Pathos, no less than grandeur and beauty, is applicable to each of the arts : to those not only of painting, sculpture, poetry, and eloquence, but also to music and architecture, acting, costume, and even gardening.
Ridicule, Its Several Elements, With Their Enumeration And Definition
Ridicule is an affection of the mind of a pure character, being entirely pleasurable without any admixture of pain, and in its effect acutely and vigorously exciting, calling forth very strong feelings of joy and mirth.
Examples In Each Art
Ridicule of both kinds is ordinarily considered far more easy to illustrate than to define. The difficulty of the definition arises from the uncertain and irregular quality of the thing to be described.
Conjuction And Co-operation Of Elements In Representations Of Each Class
Although, in order the better to analyse and distinguish them, I have in the present chapter treated the different principles or orders, and elements of the picturesque as though they were generally found existent separately in particular subjects.
Glues And Gelatine - Introductory
Through laxity of usage, the term glue, from gluere to draw together has been extended to include all solutions of substances exhibiting binding or adhesion. Its legitimate application comprehends only those viscous adhesive bodies resulting from the treatment of animal bones or tissues, as well as the bladders and certain membranes of fish.
Classification And Testing Of Glues
It is obvious that the manufacturer, in assigning a price to the finished glue, must reckon with the cost of stock, labor, etc. Theoretically, he might base the price upon these considerations alone.
Analysis Of Glue And Gelatine
In discussing the methods applicable to the assay of the constituent elements of glue and gelatine, as well as of the impurities they may contain, it must be reaffirmed at the outset that analysis supplies no data as to the strength of the product.
Glue And Gelatine Substitutes
WHERE adhesiveness is the chief end to be attained, proteid substances other than glue, as well as a number of vegetable products, may be used in the place of glue. Certain algae gelatinize from solution and hence are available as substitutes for gelatine in some classes of work.
Foreign Glues
A considerable proportion of the glue consumed annually in the United States is of foreign manufacture and, were not the tariff duty on these goods so high as to be almost prohibitive in many instances, it is to be feared that some grades would supplant the corresponding domestic in certain classes of work.
Selection Of Glue For Various Industries
While no definite rule can be enunciated relative to the selection of a glue for a specific usage, attention must be paid to certain fundamental considerations. Experience is the safest and surest guide in glue selection; but experience, with glue, is to be acquired only at great pains and expense.
How Glue Should Be Used
IT would seem superfluous, after discussing in detail the nature and properties of glue, as well as emphasizing the necessity of exercising the greatest care in its selection, to remark that its success in work will depend in a large measure upon intelligent preparation and application.
Glue - Commercial And Legal Aspects
Trade Conditions Affecting the Price of Glue. Close study of the glue industry reveals conditions extant in few, if any, other lines of business. The laws of supply and demand, universally recognized as the basic influences affecting the price of any commodity, are here factors of but secondary importance.
Glue Manufacturing
THE following working formule are all practical, having been tested by the author. A number represent standard formule which have been hitherto published in a number of works on glue, having been known for years to investigators. Others, again, are the result of the author's personal experience. Carefully carried out, they will all yield satisfactory results.
Glue - Analytical Operations
WHILE not at all averse to consulting a qualified chemist when need of his services arises, progressive superintendents frequently desire to carry out for them-selves the simpler analytical operations, if only that they may thereby better comprehend the import f the chemist's work.
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