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Conjuction And Co-operation Of Science And Art
But however valuable in its influence art may be admitted to be, the extent both of its value and of its influence, either on a nation or on an individual, must of course mainly depend on, and be regulated by the manner and the extent to which it is cultivated and understood.
General Artistical Endowments Of The Mind
HAVING considered the value of art as a mental pursuit, we have next to trace its origin in the mind, in order to effect which satisfactorily and philosophically, we must first proceed to inquire what are the powers applicable to that purpose which the mind possesses.
Passive Artistical Powers
We have next to inquire into the nature of the powers of the mind already specified, which, as has been already pointed out, are both passive and active. And first as to its passive powers.
Powers In Certain Subjects To Excite Operations In The Mind
The nature of man being so constituted as that there are particular feelings agreeable to the touch, and certain particular tastes pleasant to the palate ; so there are allied to or arising from various subjects or objects, certain specific colours and shapes and sounds, which, through some cause or other, are naturally agreeable and attractive to the eye and the ear...
Active Artistical Capacities Of The Mind
The active artistical power possessed by the mind, to which I referred in the first section of this chapter, consists in the faculty with which it is endowed of combining together in several modes, by its different capacities hereafter specified, ideas of different kinds, and thus forming compounds of great variety by this means...
Germ Of Each Art Exists In The Mind
From the foregoing considerations, we come to the conclusion that the origin of all the arts, whether of painting, sculpture, poetry, eloquence, architecture, or music, acting, costume, or gardening, is in the mind; that it is derived from those two powers or endowments of it already mentioned, the one being passive, the other being active...
Imitations
Man, as is also the case with certain animals, from his earliest childhood has a natural propensity to imitate what he sees passing around him, and the various objects and actions to which his attention is directed.
Origination
But beyond, and in addition to the process of imitation already described, there is another operation, far more important and more exalted, being that of imagination or invention, which is performed by the capacity of origination...
Adaptation To The Mind Of Works Of Nature
Not only, however, is man capable of receiving ideas of a tasteful and artistical quality, and of being excited by emotions and feelings through them in the way which I have described...
Works Of Nature And Of Art
It would be difficult, and would probably be attended with no satisfactory final result to institute a strict comparison between the effects that are produced on the mind by works of nature, and those produced by works of art. Nor can it be questioned that the works of nature are in every respect more perfect than are works of art, and are, therefore, in general more affecting to the mind.
The Invention Of Different Arts
IN the preceding Chapter I endeavoured to trace out in the constitution of human nature, and in the adaptation of our various faculties and endowments for art, the origin of this pursuit, and to discover the germ of it in the mind.
Painting
Reference has already been made to one of the modes in which the invention of painting is endeavoured to be accounted for, in being first used to represent certain ideas, or to imitate certain objects in nature, and to form symbols of them for conventional purposes...
Sculpture
The art of sculpture appears to be the most simple of them all as regards the invention of it through the mere imitation of nature, and consists in nothing more than the endeavour to copy the form of any object animate or inanimate.
Poetry
The satisfactory tracing out with certainty of the original invention of poetry, appears to me to be a more difficult and perplexing task than the attempt to discover the source of either of the other arts. This art, doubtless, originated entirely in feeling and passion...
Eloquence
Eloquence, as an art, consists in the narration of events of great importance, or the description of subjects of the most sub-lime or picturesque nature, in language of corresponding dignity or beauty.
Music
The art of music having so many types in nature resembling or corresponding with it, its invention might be the more easily and readily ascribed to the simple imitation of natural sounds. Singular, however, to say, the popular notion of its discovery does not appear to have sanctioned the idea of those sounds most likely to have suggested its origin, having occasioned its first usage.
Architecture
The invention of architecture, as I have already observed, was probably in the first instance derived from the imitation by those who lived in the rudest ages of society in natural caverns, which were adopted as their primitive residence,—in the construction of their original artificial habitations, and which constituted the sustaining medium of the art itself.
Dramatic Setting
In addition to the six several arts above enumerated, the invention of which has already been traced, there are three other pursuits which, although not generally ranked among the number of the arts, for the reasons I shall adduce, appear to possess a fair claim to be so classified...
Costume
In every nation one of the earliest efforts to which civilization prompts mankind is to provide themselves with clothing.
Gardening
The necessities of man, as the family of mankind increased, obliged him to cultivate the vegetable products of the earth, and to appropriate, each person or head of a family to himself, particular spots for this purpose; and having so employed himself in the tilling of these portions of land.
Divisions Of Art Into Imitative, Illustrative, And Ideal, And Into Arts Indepent And Appendent
From the foregoing considerations it appears that the arts in general owe their invention to two principal circumstances...
Invention, And The Origin Of The Arts
These different arts, although the origin of each of them is in the mind, and is derived through the operation of the faculties and the feelings which I have described, seem, nevertheless, in their earliest stages to be endowed with little or nothing that is calculated to produce this effect...
Rise And Progress Of The Arts.
IN the two chapters immediately preceding the present, I endeavoured, first, to inquire into the origin of art in general, by investigating the capability of man for such a pursuit from the constitution of his nature, and the faculties for this purpose with which his mind is endowed.
Art - Its Progress On What Dependent
On what then are the arts in each country, and of each kind, mainly dependent for their growth and advancement in the nation where they have been planted, and for rising out of their pristine infantine condition to one of importance and excellence; and what are the main propelling causes of their progress ?
Infancy Of Art
The strict analogy between the condition of man, both individually and in the aggregate, during infancy, and that of art, which is the product of the mind of man, is at once obvious ; and the nature of the one serves forcibly to illustrate that of the other.
Examples In Early Art
The most complete illustration of the condition of art at this early period will, however, be afforded by reference to examples produced at this time, and by an examination of the qualities with which it was then endowed.
Art - Its Gradual Rise To Maturity
The arts of each kind having their origin in certain faculties of the mind, it almost necessarily follows that, according to and in proportion as these particular faculties are cultivated and develope themselves, these arts also will rise and become developed.
Arts Capacities Expand As Its Growth Advance
As it is in the natural, so is it also in a corresponding manner in the artistical world, that according as the arts severally advance in their career and become expanded by growth, their development is perfected, and their capacities are enlarged.
Period Of The Highest Perfection In Art
The determination of the precise period at which art attains the meridian of its glory in any particular age or nation, is probably a point more difficult to decide upon than might at first appear, and the different arts seem in this respect to some extent to vary according to the peculiar qualities and characteristics of each.
Diseases Of Art At Its Highest Perfection In Art
Like the human frame, to the growth and gradual progress of which, and its passage through the various stages of infancy, youth, manhood, and old age, it has been compared; art is liable to a variety of deleterious influences, corresponding in their nature and effects to the diseases in a living body...
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