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The Araucanian Indians
I WANT to introduce to the reader the richest, proudest, and bravest of the Indians of the South American Continent - Indians who once owned the greater part of Chile, and who, for three generations, with wooden lances and bows and arrows, waged a successful war with the Spanish invaders. They killed the founder of Santiago, Pedro Valdivia, who came south to conquer them.
At The Tail End Of Our Hemisphere
I AM at the tail end of our hemisphere; at the lowest continental point in the world; three thousand miles nearer the south pole than the foot of the Siamese peninsula at the end of Asia; more than a thousand miles farther south than the Cape of Good Hope, with a distance equal to the diameter of the earth between myself and the northern parts of the United States.
In The Capital Of The Magellans
PUNTA ARENAS is the southernmost city in the world. It is at the extreme foot of the South American continent, 1,200 miles nearer the south pole than Cape Town at the lower extremity of Africa. It is 7, 00o miles south of New York, in the corresponding latitude of Labrador. Still its winters are warmer than those of Washington city, and now, at its coldest, the earth is covered with green.
Tierra Del Fuego
THE Tierra del Fuego of the geographies and encyclopoedias is a dreary land of snow and ice, of glaciers and rocky wastes. Let me tell the reader what the real Tierra del Fuego is. My information conies from what I have seen, and from the men who have lived upon the great island and visited nearly every part of it.
In The Falkland Islands
THE Falklands are among the little-known islands of the Atlantic Ocean, and yet they promise to become one of the news centres of the world. The islands form a crown colony of Great Britain, which is now planning to establish a naval and coaling station upon them.
The Argentine Republic
I CAME from Punta Arenas via the Falkland Islands to Montevideo, thence to Buenos Aires. I have now been several weeks in the Argentine Republic. The country amazes me: I expected to find it not unlike the United States. It is, however, as different as lemons are different from pumpkins. We have in the United States a booming country. Things also boom in the Argentine, but the character and conditions of prosperity are entirely different.
Buenos Aires
BUENOS AIRES is at once the London, the New York, and the Paris of the Argentine Republic. It might almost be called the Argentine itself, for it controls the country as no other capital does the land which it is supposed to dominate. It is an old saying that Paris is France ; she is not so much so as Buenos Aires is Argentina.
High Life In Argentina
HIGH life in Buenos Aires! High life in the Paris of South America, where millionaires are thicker than blackberries in August and honey-lipped heiresses swarm like bees in midsummer! We may see it out driving in the park of Palermo, or meet it every afternoon on the Calle Florida. We may take chances with it every Sunday at the races, or we may stare at its diamonds every night during the opera season.
Low Life In Argentina
THERE is low life as well as high life in the Argentine Republic. The poor are in the majority. Argentina has thousands of people who live in zinc sheds, and there are courts in Buenos Aires in which men, women, and children swarm as thickly as they do in any tenement section of New York or London. Rents are very high and only the rich are able to have houses to themselves.
Odd Argentine Customs
THE Argentines are generous, after the Spanish style. That is, they will make you a grandiloquent presentation of anything you admire, expecting that you will politely refuse to accept. This is the custom of all Spanish-America. At Santiago I dined one day with a millionaire friend of the President of Chile, a gentleman of high education and culture.
The Wheat-fields Of Argentina
ROSARIO is the Chicago of South America. It is the chief wheat-market of the Argentine Republic. It is situated on the Parana river, about 200 miles by land from Buenos Aires, at such a point that ocean steamers can sail up to its wharves and load for Europe.
Sheep And Stock-raising In Argentina
IN THE last chapter I had something to say of wheat-farming in Argentina. In this l write of sheep- and stock-raising industries, which are infinitely more important to the prosperity and wealth of the country. The Argentine Republic is rather a pasture field than a grain farm. It has, indeed, the largest pastures of any in the world, vast pampas which extend on and on all about you as far as your eye can reach.
How The Argentine Republic Is Governed
DURING my stay in Argentina a new president was elected. General Julio A. Roca, the Ulysses S. Grant of the Argentine Republic, was again chosen as the head of the government. His election did not mean that he was the choice of a majority of the Argentines, but merely that he was the strongest man in the small coterie that governs the country.
Across South America On The Trans-andean Railroad
ACROSS South America by railroad ; climbing over the Andes on iron tracks ; drawn through the vast pampas of the Argentine by a locomotive; joining the Atlantic and Pacific by an iron band - this is the problem which has long been agitating the Argentine and Chile, and which is now almost solved.
The United States And Argentina
THE United States will not be able to compete with the European nations for the trade of the Atlantic coast of South America until it has closer commercial connections. Steamship lines and banking companies are among the tools of commerce, and until we own such tools we cannot hope to compete with other nations which are so equipped.
Up The Paraguay River
I AM in Asuncion, Paraguay, in the heart of South America. The city is as far inland in a straight line from the Atlantic as Chicago, but I had to travel farther than from New York to Omaha to reach it. I started at Buenos Aires, on the Rio de la Plata, about 200 miles from the ocean, and travelled from there a distance of 1,115 miles on the Parana, and Paraguay rivers.
In The City Of Asuncion
COME with me this morning and have a look at the capital of Paraguay. It is now summer; the people are moving about in cottons or linens, and at midday the earth seems to steam. The children go to school very early and every-one rests or doses at noon. The mornings and evenings, however, are pleasant and we shall be comfortably cool in the mule cars which take us to all parts of the city.
The Pretty Girls Of Paraguay
PARAGUAY is the paradise of South America. Its climate is delightful; its semi-tropical vegetation is as luxuriant as that of the Garden of Eden, and it has about three Eves to every Adam. I have never been in a country where there are so many women. They swarm; they walk by you and with you on the highways and byways, and there are so many that you find it difficult at times to get out of their sight.
Industrial Paraguay
PARAGUAY is one of the least developed of the countries of South America. During recent interviews with the President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs, I have had the present condition and the possible future of the country laid before me. They estimate that Paraguay could easily support ten times its present population.
Round About Pirapo
HAVE you ever heard of Pirapo ? It is a little town at the end of the railroad in southern Paraguay, 156 miles from Asuncion, and about 70 miles north of the Paranā river. Vast pastures surround it, for it is right out on the prairie, so that droves of cattle wander through it and graze in its streets. Pirapo has, altogether, not more than 50 inhabitants. It consists of a-half dozen mud huts, roofed with gray thatch, a frame railroad depot about 15 feet square, and a hotel with walls of mud and poles and a roof of corrugated iron.
In The Wilds Of Brazil
THE wonders of the Paranā river system grow upon me. I am now on the Paraguay, which flows 2,000 miles from its source in Brazil before it loses itself in the Paranā.The Paraguay has a network of tributaries, on which you can sail for thousands of miles, and on some of which you can go in canoes so close to the tributaries of the Amazon that by carrying your boat a short distance you could reach the Atlantic through that mighty stream.
In The Little Land Of Uruguay
URUGUAY is the smallest and richest State south of the equator. It lies at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, just across from the Argentine Republic, and at the southeast corner of Brazil. The whole country would hardly be a mouthful for Argentina, and not a good-sized bite for Brazil; but its soil is as fat as the valley of the Nile, and its people step high on the stilts of self-esteem.
The President Of Uruguay
WHILE in Montevideo I spent an evening at the President's mansion. The occasion was one of his weekly receptions, and the wealth, culture, and beauty of the capital were present. I might add the courage, for the reception was held under curious conditions. There were soldiers at the door who scrutinized every guest as he passed in.
The Baby Republic Of Brazil
BRAZIL is the baby among the world's great republics, the biggest infant in the international animal show. It is less than ten years old as a republican government, and to what it will grow no one can tell. It has twenty-one States, some of which like Sao Paulo, where I now am, are growing so powerful that they may break off from the main body politic and become republics themselves.
A Visit To The Largest Coffee Plantation
FROM Sao Paulo I took the railroad for the interior and went 300 miles inland to see the Dumont coffee fazenda, the biggest coffee plantation in the world. It has about 5,000,000 trees, and annually produces enough coffee to give every man, woman, and child in the United States a daily cup for a week.
More About Coffee
A NIGHT'S ride north by railroad has brought me to Rio de Janeiro, the capital of Brazil. Rio is the centre of the coffee trade. It is financially and industrially, as well as politically the Brazilian capital, and while it does not ship so many bags of coffee as Santos ships, it furnishes most of the money that moves the crop.
In Rio De Janeiro
RIO DE JANEIRO is next to Buenos Aires the largest city in South America. It has 700,000 inhabitants, while Buenos Aires claims 100,000 more. Buenos Aires is by far the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world: Rio de Janeiro is the largest city in which the people speak Portuguese.
In The Switzerland Of Brazil
HAVE you ever heard of Petropolis? It is where the president and the leading Brazilian officials spend their summers, and where the foreign diplomats live all the year round. It is in the mountains, just back of Rio, about half a mile above the level of the sea. The scenery about it is more like Switzerland than the tropics, and its climate is such that yellow fever is a stranger to it.
Bahia, And The Diamond Mines
From Rio de Janeiro I came by steamer two days north to Bahia, the former capital of Brazil. It is still a large city, only surpassed by Rio in size and in business. Bahia is situated on a bay as large as that of Rio de Janeiro. The bay is of the shape of a horseshoe, 10 miles wide at the entrance, 27 miles long, and in the centre about 20 miles wide.
Up The Coast Of Brazil
I AM on the steamship Manaos approaching the city of Para, at the mouth of the Amazon. Twelve days ago I left Bahia, and since then have been travelling along the coast. The Manaos is one of the Lloyd Brazilian steamship line which has the monopoly of the coast trade of Brazil.
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