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Giotto - Assisi - The Upper Church
NOT only has it been the general opinion of writers and of critics since Vasari's day that Giotto worked as an assistant of Cimabue in the Upper Church at Assisi, but all have unanimously agreed in considering the long series of paintings representing the Life and Miracles of the great Saint from whom the building takes its name...
Giotto - The Arena Chapel
THE present chapel of Sta. Maria dell' Arena, at Padua, was erected, if we may believe an inscription handed down to us by Scardeone and others, about the year 1303, by Enrico Scrovegno, or de' Scrovegni, son of a Paduan citizen of great wealth, Reginaldo by name, whose reputation for avarice and usury was so great as to secure for him the unenviable immortality of being consigned by Dante, on account of those characteristics, to the Seventh Circle of his Inferno.
Giotto - The Allegorical Scenes At Padua
IF Giotto may be said to have exhibited his greatest gifts as a painter in the foregoing frescoes, he has given us no less striking an example of his intellectual powers in the series of allegorical figures representative of the seven Virtues and their opposite Vices, which form a species of monochrome border below the paintings on the lateral walls.
Giotto - Later Works
IF the history of Giotto's earlier life may be said to I rest beneath a cloud, we have at least been able to account for his presence in Rome and at Assisi during the greater part of the ten years preceding his acceptance of the commission to decorate the chapel of the Paduan Arena.
Giotto - The Campanile And Final Works
THE exact date of Giotto's journey to Naples is not known to us, although we are in the possession of a document, dated January, 1330, in which he is offered by King Robert the full honours due to a familiar guest. According to Vasari it was through the recommendation of Duke Charles of Calabria, son of King Robert, that Giotto received the invitation to paint in the southern capital.
Genius Of Giotto
THERE exists, perhaps, in the entire history of art, no single personage whose character is more truly reflected in his works than is the case with Giotto di Bondone.
Giotto - The Panel Pictures
TIME has left us but few panel pictures from the hand of Giotto, and none equalling in importance the great Stefaneschi altar-piece at Rome which, as we have already stated, is not only the earliest recognizable work of the master now in existence, but also the only one, the approximate date of whose execution is known to us.
Journeys To And From Switzerland
BEFORE plunging into the accounts of travels by the three past generations, which it is the main purpose of this volume to reproduce, a few words may be given to explain who were the actors in the first scenes which we are about to recall. The first journey to which we shall refer was made by the present editor's great-grandfather, Rev. Jean Roget, and his wife, Mrs. Catherine Roget.
A Journey From Lausanne To London
WE are able to give a much fuller account of Mrs. Catherine Roget's journey back to England than of the travels referred to in the last chapter, as she wrote a diary of the whole journey herself. The account below is but slightly abridged from the original, and much of it, in addition to the contrast between the travelling conditions then prevalent and those of today, has a special interest in view of the later history of the countries traversed.
A Coach Journey From London To Edinburgh
AS an example of the ordinary means of inland travel in the old coaching days, with its little incidents and annoyances, we are able to give an account, also by Mrs. Catherine Roget, of a journey from London to Edinburgh, ten years later, again accompanied by her son and daughter, now aged fourteen and ten and a half years respectively.
London To Geneva Through Paris
WE will now follow Dr. Roget in a somewhat eventful tour upon which he started in 1802 in the capacity of tutor to two young men named Burton and Nathaniel Philips, sons of Mr. John Philips of Manchester, who, according to a letter written by Dr. Roget on a visit to Manchester for an introduction to this family, has a very large establishment ; his cotton factory is the largest in Manchester.
The Escape From Imprisonment
WE cannot do better than give in Dr. Roget's own words particulars of the change that came over the situation and the succeeding events. During the winter of 1802-3, which we spent at Geneva, we had frequently indulged our fancy in arranging the plan of our summer occupations, in projecting various parties of pleasure on the lake and neighbouring mountains, and in chalking out our route through Switzerland in the tour we intended to make in that enchanting country.
A Tour In The United States
DURING a considerable portion of the intervening years, Dr. Roget lived in Manchester, where he was for some time one of the Physicians to the Infirmary, an appointment which he retained till October 1808, when he finally settled in London and became a scientific writer and lecturer of eminence and versatility.
A Visit To Paris
ALTHOUGH in the last chapter we have caught a glimpse of a steamboat in America, we have little to record of the gradual changes from sailing-ship to steamboat and from coach to train which had their inception since the days in which Dr. Roget's continental journey of 1802-3 was made, as he made no very extended journeys during this transition period.
A Tour On The Continent
IN company with his two children and a friend, Dr. Roget made an extended tour of the Continent in the year 1844. His son, John Lewis Roget, was then sixteen years of age, and this tour was the first time that he had been abroad, and selections from his account are given below. Thus the third generation now becomes the historian, and in his turn records his first impressions of a foreign country.
A Walking Tour In The Eifel And Moselle Districts
SEVEN years later, Mr. J. L. Roget, who in the meantime had completed his studies at Cambridge and was now following the profession of the law at Lincoln's Inn, took a short trip on the Continent, of which he has left a detailed account. This time the circumstances were somewhat different, as this was principally a walking tour with two friends.
Paris During The Crimean War, And A Trip To Holland
WE will pause next for a glance at Paris in 1855, when Mr. J. L. Roget made a short trip in France and Holland. He was accompanied on this occasion by his uncle, Mr. Samuel Hobson, whose travels in America as a young man have already been referred to.
France After The Franco-prussian War
IN the interval since the last journeyings that we followed, Dr. P. M. Roget, the little boy of our earlier chapters, had died at the ripe age of ninety (in 1869), and Mr. J. L. Roget had himself married, in 1865, Miss Frances Ditchfield. Of the somewhat extended tour that he made to Italy and elsewhere after his marriage we have no account to offer, and our next pause is for a glimpse of France.
British Art In The Retrospect.
THE origin of art in any nation is coeval with the commencement of civilization ; and in the case of every individual with the first dawn of intelligence, he begins to exert his mind in artistical effort. Wherever taste, or even passion or emotion are stimulated, there art at once developes itself.
British Painting
The earliest account of the practice óf painting in this country is that afforded by Cwsar, who describes the mode in which the primeval inhabitants were wont to adorn their persons by painting on their skins representations of the sun moon and stars, and other devices, for which they used the juices of different plants.
British Sculpture
Although the material resorted to for sculptural efforts, is considerably more durable than that which is used for pictorial representations, we have very few remains of works in this art prior to the period of the Anglo-Saxons. The only exceptions are some rude devices on certain Druidical temples, more particularly in Brittany.
British Poetry
It will be necessarily more difficult to trace the origin of poetry in a nation than that of the other arts to which I have referred, inasmuch as the vehicle in which poetry is existent not being durable, it is almost impossible to preserve specimens of it during successive ages. Of ancient British poetry we possess no remains, and no distinct account.
British Eloquence
Of the early exhibitions of eloquence in this country we possess scarcely any remains, although some faint shadows have been preserved of its efforts in the accounts transmitted of the bold and manly address of Caractacus when brought before the Roman Emperor, and of Queen Boadicea's spirited oration to her valiant generals.
British Music
Music is, perhaps, of all the arts, that of which the origin and first introduction into any nation are most difficult exactly to trace, inasmuch as it leaves no memento or relic like nearly every other art; while a more advanced and perfect performance, at once supersedes and obliterates that which had preceded it.
British Architecture
It is not in reality much more easy to trace accurately the origin of architecture in our land, than that of the other arts, inasmuch as, although certain rude efforts in the art were effected by the earliest inhabitants of this isle, some specimens of which still remain.
Dramatic Acting
The earliest efforts of the English drama are believed to have been either borrowed directly from Continental writers, or to have been composed by the Anglo-Norman clerks in the Gallic idiom. Long anterior to these, however, many of the religious or superstitious rites and ceremonies practised by the ancient Britons on great festal occasions, were of a highly dramatic character.
British Costume
To trace out accurately the original condition, rise, and progress through various stages, of costume in this country, would be a task of some difficulty, and would occupy consider-able space. In a rude age this art originated here as in other countries. The ancient Britons painted their bodies with representations of the planets and other figures.
British Gardening
The earliest account of the formation of gardens in this country, consists in the description of the enclosures made by the ancient Britons near their huts and villages, for the purpose of procuring such vegetable productions as they ordinarily needed. Of the gardens of the Anglo-Saxons, and of the race who succeeded them, we have no record.
The Present Condition Of British Art
Having traced as accurately as I can the origin and growth of each of the arts in this country, I come now to consider the present state in which we find them existent. We may conclude on the whole that the condition in our day of each of these different branches of the arts, more especially painting, sculpture, architecture, and music, to which I have more particularly alluded, is precisely such as might be calculated upon as the result of that high condition of refinement and luxury to which we have attained.
Counteracting Influences Affecting Art, Both Past And Present
We have now, after tracing the origin and progress of the arts in this country, and examining their present condition, to inquire into the leading causes which have retarded, and do still retard our advancement here, and prevent us from rivalling those great nations who have preceded us in the same pursuits.
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