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Joan Of Arc
ON THE 6th of January, 1412, Jeanne d'Arc, or, as we call her, Joan of Arc, was born at Domremy, a little village on the left bank of the Meuse, on land belonging to the French crown. Her parents, Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, were simple peasants, of good life and reputation, who brought up their children to work hard, fear God and honour the saints. Besides Joan, they had four children.
Lady Jane Grey
WHEN the hapless daughter of Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, offered up her fair young life upon the scaffold at Tower Hill she was still in her teens-- with the simplicity and freshness of girlhood upon her. There is a tender and pathetic beauty about the tragic tale which no repetition can wholly dim or wear off. The reader needs not to be told that she was the lest daughter of Henry Grey, third Marquis of Dorset.
Pocahontas
IN HIS younger days Powhatan had been a great warrior. He was the chief, or werowance, of eight tribes. Through conquest his dominions had been extended until they reached from the James River to the Potomac, from the sea to the falls in the rivers, and included thirty of the forty tribes in Virginia. It is estimated that his subjects numbered eight thousand. The name of his nation and the Indian name of the James River was Powhatan.
Flora Macdonald
IN THE year 1745 Charles Edward, commonly called the Young Pretender to the throne of England and Scotland, landed in Scotland and raised the standard of revolt. He was followed by many of the Highland clans and also by certain of the Lowland.
Madame Roland
IN THE year 1754 there was living in an obscure work. shop in Paris, an engraver by the name of Gratien Phlippon. He had married a very beautiful woman, whose placid temperament and cheerful content contrasted strikingly with the restlessness of her husband. The comfortable yet humble apartments of the engraver were over the shop where he plied his daily toil.
Grace Darling
GRACE DARLING was born on the 24th of November, 1815, at a small town upon the northeastern coast of England. She was the seventh child of her parents. Her grandfather, Robert Darling, had been keeper of the coal-light on the outmost of the Farne Islands, and her father, William, succeeded him in that post.
Sister Dora
DOROTHY WYNDLOW PATTISON was born on January 15th, 1832. She was the youngest daughter, and the youngest child but one, of the Rev. Mark Pattison, who was for many years Rector of Hauxwell, near Richmond, in Yorkshire. She inherited from her father, who was of a Devonshire family, that finely proportioned and graceful figure which she always maintained.
Florence Nightingale
SOME years ago, when the celebrated Florence Nightingale was a little girl, living at her father's home, a large, old Elizabethan house, with great woods about it, in Hampshire, there was one thing that struck everybody who knew her. It was that she seemed to be always thinking what she could do to please or help anyone who needed either help or comfort. She was very fond, too, of animals, and she was so gentle in her way, that even the shyest of them would come quite close to her, and pick up whatever she flung down for them to eat.
Gustave Courbet - Courbet Au Chien Noir (courbet And A Black Dog)
COURBET was one of Courbet's favourite subjects. It has often been thrown up against him by men who forget that an artist has great difficulty in finding a model as convenient or as well-studied as himself. But, it was said, the painter who delighted in making so many of his contemporaries look uglier than they were was much nicer and more generous when it came to his own face.
Gustave Courbet - Le Guitarrero (the Guitar Player)
THE following year, 1845, Courbet, who already had a great capacity for work and a remarkable facility, sent five pictures to the Salon. The jury only accepted one little picture called Le Guitarrero, which had been painted in a fortnight. It was formerly in the Faure collection, but passed to the Bernheim gallery, where it has recently been sold.
Gustave Courbet - Le Ha Mac (the Hammock)
MUCH more personal is the picture called Le Hamad, here reproduced. It bears the date 1844 and is now in the collection of Prince de Wagram. As it never appeared, so far as is known, in any important exhibition we cannot set it side by side with contemporary impressions as we shall do in the case of the subsequent pictures.
Gustave Courbet - L'homme a la Pipe (the Man With A Pipe)
THE following year, 1847, brought a fresh disaster. Three pictures were sent to the Salon and rejected. The artist was dumbfounded. It was no good despising the judges, for their decision was big with consequences, - I must exhibit to make myself known and unfortunately that is the only exhibition.
Gustave Courbet - L'hommea La Ceinture De Cuir (the Man With The Leather Girdle)
At the Salon of 1849, through a happy inspiration of Charles Blanc, then Director of Fine Arts, the Institut gave way to a jury elected by the exhibitors. This gave their revenge to the independent artists, notably to Courbet, who had seven pictures accepted out of the seven sent in.
Gustave Courbet - L'apres-diner A Ornans (after Dinner At Ornans)
HIS picture was exhibited in the Salon of 1849, and is the first in point of time of the great works of Courbet. It was also the first really to attract the attention of the public.
Gustave Courbet - Les Paysans De Flagey (the Peasants Of Flagey)
THE Salon of 1850-51 was one of the most important in the artist's career. The jury, elected by the artists, accepted the eight pictures he had sent in, and among them were L'Homme à la Pipe, the portraits of Berlioz and the apostle Jean Journet, Les Paysans de Flagey, revenant de la Foire, Les Casseurs de Pierres and L'Enterrement.
Gustave Courbet - L'apotre Jean Jour Net (jean Journet, The Apostle)
It is like `Marlborough s'en vat en guerre.' Journet is so well known in Paris that they had to place a gendarme by the picture during the exhibition. Courbet's model was an old carbonaro, who had originally taken refuge in Spain, and had then set up as a chemist at Limoux, and had finally come to Paris to convert the city to the doctrines of Fourier and universal peace.
Gustave Courbet - Les Casseurs De Pierres (the Stone-breakers)
WHEN he bade old Gagey, the road-mender, to his Organs studio, in order to paint him just as he had seen him one day in November, 1849, on the road from the Château de Saint-Denis, Courbet probably had no notion of raising the social question, as he pretended to do later on.
Gustave Courbet - L'enterrement (the Funeral)
COURBET'S good nature, his early successes, and perhaps also his boasting, had made him immensely popular at Ornans. The whole village may be said to have collaborated in his great picture, L' Enterrement, which he began at the end of 1849.
Gustave Courbet - L'enterrement (continued) Adversaries And Waverers
L'ENTERREMENT suddenly brought to a head the whole conflict of opinion concerning Courbet: The artist, wrote Sabathier-Ungher, has made a place for himself in the French school like a cannon ball crashing into a wall. To the majority of the public and the critics this masterpiece was only a piece of vulgar mystification and a lamentable lapse of taste.
Gustave Courbet - L'enterrement (concluded) The Artist's Partisans
COURBET'S friends vigorously joined issue with the detractors of `L'Enterrement. Champfieury wrote several articles defending the picture figure by figure.
Gustave Courbet - Les Demoiselles De Village (village Girls)
IF Courbet was not upset by all the clamour that went on about him certain criticisms had at any rate touched him nearly. He gave more thought to them than they deserved in the composition of Les Demoiselles de Village which he mentioned to Champfleury before the opening of the Salon of 1852.
Gustave Courbet - Environs D'ornans (near Or Nans)
We have already had glimpses of Courbet's native country in some of his pictures. But the scenery round Ornans supplied the painter with material for several hundred studies and pictures from beginning to end of his artistic career.
Gustave Courbet - Les Baigneuses (women Bathing)
DISCUSSION broke out afresh over the Salon of 1853 where Les Baigneuses, Les Lutteurs, and La Fileuse were shown. The first of these pictures produced another scandal. It was in vain that the artist took the advice of his friends and covered the too opulent flesh of his central figure, for decency was declared to be outraged as much by the lapse of taste as well as by the unacademic figure.
Gustave Courbet - Les Lutteurs (the Wrestlers)
IT will be remembered that in 1841 Courbet painted a Classical Walpurgis Night. When the jury was so far rejuvenated as to allow the artist to exhibit the picture in 1848 it provoked this prophetic saying of Champfleury.
Gustave Courbet - La Fileuse Endormie (the Sleeping Spinner)
LA FILEUSE ' will save Courbet's exhibit, wrote Champfleury to Max Buchon before the opening of the Salon of 1853. The picture did not meet with the same hostility as the other two and all those who were alive to the painter's qualities seized the opportunity to pay him their compliments, all, however, more or less reserved.
Gustave Courbet - Baudelaire
COURBET had a horror of bespoke portraits. Women, he said, want images without shadows; men want to be dressed up in their Sunday best. It would be much better to do navvy's work than to earn money in that way; at least one would not have bartered away his thoughts.
Gustave Courbet - Champfleury
MORE lasting was Courbet's friendship with Champfleury, whose portrait, painted in1853, was bequeathed to the Louvre in 1889. Jules Husson, known as Fleury, or Champfleury, was born at Laon in 1821. He deserted his profession as a bookseller to devote himself to letters.
Gustave Courbet - Proudhon Et Sa Famille (proudhon And Family)
ANOTHER writer figured in the artist's circle of friends from this time on. It was about 1848 that the painter met Pierre-Paul Proudhon, his compatriot (he was born at Besançon), and his elder by ten years. At that time, the celebrated socialist, who had become a deputy, after being in turn a drover, a waiter, a journeyman-printer and a clerk in a firm of tug-proprietors.
Gustave Courbet - Alfred Bruyas
AMONG Courbet's most active partisans, Alfred Bruyas of Montpellier (1821-1876) calls for special mention. In Rome, whither his parents had sent him for the sake of his health, his compatriot, Cabanel, the painter, brought him in touch with the young artists of the Villa Medici, and it was there no doubt that he discovered his vocation as a Maecenas.
Gustave Courbet - La Rencontre (the Meeting)
IN 1854 Courbet paid a long visit to Bruyas's house at Montpellier. He had just come back from Frankfort, still bewildered by the discussion he had roused there, At the Casino, he wrote to a friend, they had to put up a notice to this effect: Any mention of M. Courbet's pictures is prohibited in this club.
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