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Fra Filippo Lippi - 1406?-1469
Filippo Lippi was born of poor parents living in the neighborhood of the Carmine in Florence. An orphan when only two years old, he was cared for by an aunt until at eight years of age he was taken to the Carmelite convent, where he remained until 1431, taking orders in 1421.
The Technicians
Andrea del Castagno was of peasant birth and very poor. He shows a rude strength in the figures of unbeautiful but vigorous reality in his Crucifixion and the Last Supper in the convent of S. Apollonia, now a museum of his work. He was nicknamed Impiccati, Andrea of the Gallows, because of the effigies of the Albizzi and Peruzzi rebels which he painted on the outer wall of the Bargello in 1435.
Sandro Botticelli (alessandro Filipepi) 1447-1510
Sandro, the son of Mariano Filipepi, a well-to-do citizen of Florence, known always as Botticelli, was first apprenticed to a goldsmith, later to Fra Lippo Lippi, with whom he went to Prato in 1459.
Filippino Lippi - 1457-1504
Filippino Lippi, son of Fra Filippo Lippi and Lucrezia Buti, was born in Prato. He must have learned much from his father, and as a boy of twelve was with him in Spoleto when he died in 1469. He then studied and worked under Botticelli, a relationship which profoundly influenced all his art.
Ghirlandajo (domenico Bigordi) 1449-1494
Ghirlandajo, the garland-maker, so named from the gold and silver wreaths made by the goldsmith to whom he was apprenticed, learned to paint under Baldovinetti, it is thought. In 1475, he and his brother were called to Rome to decorate the Vatican Library, and six years later he was employed in the Sistine Chapel.
Sculpture In The Fifteenth Century
Jacopo, named from the castello of La Quercia near Siena, came first into notice through an equestrian effigy which he made of wood, covered with cloth and stucco, for the funeral of a Sienese citizen. In 1401 he competed for the Baptistery doors in Florence, and was mentioned as third in excellence.
Ghiberti (lorenzo Di Cione) 1378-1455
Lorenzo Ghiberti worked in the goldsmith's shop of his stepfather Bartolo until an outbreak of the plague in 1400 drove him from Florence and he found occupation in painting in the palace of the Malatesta in Rimini. In 1401 his stepfather wrote, urging him to return to enter the competition for the Baptistery doors, in which he proved successful, much assisted by Bartolo's counsel.
Donatello - (Donato Di Niccolo Di Betto Bardi)
Donatello, the diminutive form of whose name reveals the affection in which he was held by his fellows, was a man of simple, unassuming nature, for whom money and fine raiment had small attraction. Little is known of his life except as it is connected with his work, which is of great volume and variety. He is believed to have visited Rome with Brunelleschi before 1406.
The Della Robbia Family
Luca della Robbia first worked in marble, making the Singing Gallery of the Duomo in 1431—1438. He designed the bronze doors for the Sacristy, a commission which Donatello had failed to accomplish. Above the doors are the lunettes of the Resurrection and the Ascension, Luca's first use of the glazed terra-cotta that bears his name.
Sculpture In The Fifteenth Century
The sculptors of this group are named from the towns lying on the hills that circle Florence to the east and south. There are few more delightful excursions than to walk from Fiesole to Settignano by way of Majano, recalling the sculptors from Mino to Michelangelo who learned there the craft of stonecutting.
The Bronze Workers - Antonio Del Pollajuolo 1429?-1498
Antonio, the more able of the Pollajuolo brothers, was primarily a worker in bronze. His first work was in realistic animal decorations on the frame of the south doors of the Baptistery, and in reliefs for the silver altar front, now in the Cathedral Museum. His chief works are the bronze tombs of Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII in St. Peter's.
Sculptors Outside Of Florence
Niccolo, born in Bari, in Southern Italy, is known chiefly by his work on the shrine of St. Dominic. All of the work attributed to him is in Bologna, including an equestrian relief in the Bentivoglio Chapel of S. Giacomo Maggiore and a relief of the Madonna on the façade of the Palazzo Comunale.
Painting In The Fifteenth Century: Umbria
Ottaviano Nelli, son of a painter of Gubbio, has left a wall painting in Gubbio and frescos in the town hall of Foligno which seem like enlarged miniatures. He removed to Urbino in 1420. Gentile, born in Fabriano, traveled and painted throughout Italy. In 1419 he was in Bergamo and Brescia. In Venice he was intimately associated with Pisanello and Jacopo Bellini. His masterpiece was painted in Florence in 1423.
Painters Of Urbino
Piero, son of Benedetto of the Franceschi family, was born at Borgo San Sepolcro, where much of his life was spent. He was in Florence as assistant to Domenico Veneziano in 1439-1445. Under Nicholas V, he was employed in the Vatican, his paintings being among those replaced by Raphael's work. His most important work, the story of the True Cross, is in the cathedral of Arezzo.
Melozzo Da Forli - 1438-1494 Marco Palmezzano - 1456-1543?
Melozzo, of the Ambrosi family, was born at Forli, but probably studied both architecture and painting in Urbino, where he was familiarly known. The first record of his work is his employment by Pope Sixtus IV, 1475-1480, in the decoration of the remodeled church of the Holy Apostles and in the commemoration of the founding of the Vatican Library.
Luca Signorelli - 1441-1523
Luca Signorelli was born and spent his life in Cortona, serving frequently as municipal councillor and prior. While still a boy he was apprenticed to Piero della Francesca. His early studies of the human form suggest some very direct influence from the Florentine masters Donatello and Pollajuolo.
Painters Of Perugia
The art of Perugia has two definite characteristics. The first is religious sentiment. The second is landscape, that wide sweep of fertile valley and distant hills, a low horizon line, and the luminous sky, with which the outlook from their own hill town had made the artists familiar.The first of these is exemplified by Benedetto Bonfigli.
Pinturicchio (Bernardo Di Benedetto Biagio) 1454-1513
Pinturicchio, the little painter, was a Perugian by birth. He probably studied under Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, but is first mentioned in 1482 as Perugino's partner in the work in the Sistine Chapel, two of the frescos being attributed to him, though showing Perugino's influence. In 1484 he decorated the Bufalini Chapel in S. Maria in Aracoeli with the story of S. Bernardino.
Painting In The Fifteenth Century
Cosimo Tura is thought to have studied under Squarcione, showing the same antiquarian interests in his work, which is often rude but full of energy. The angular folds of his draperies are a marked characteristic. He planned the decorations of the palace of the Este family in Ferrara, assisted by his pupils.
Painters Of Padua
Squarcione, who was the teacher of many pupils from all parts of Italy, has left few indications of artistic ability, and is believed by recent critics to have been rather a contractor for artistic undertakings than an artist. He was an ardent collector of antiques, the study of which influenced a wide circle of younger men.
Painters Of Milan And Verona
Vincenzo Foppa, born in Brescia and a pupil of Squarcione, settled in Milan in 1456, where most of his work was done. Like other artists of his time, he was interested in the study of perspective and the human form, and was the teacher of the succeeding generation. He was employed by Sforza, and by the Medici in the decoration of their palace in Milan.
Painting In The Fifteenth Century : Venice
Antonio Vivarini of Murano is best known by the large altarpieces painted in cooperation with a northern artist, perhaps from Cologne, Johannes Alemannus, with whom he was associated from 1440 to 1447. His independent work shows the influence of Gentile da Fabriano and Pisanello.Bartolommeo Vivarini, a younger brother, worked with Antonio after 1450, introducing the severe and sculpturesque style of Padua, while retaining the form of the Byzantine altarpiece in many parts, and using also the gilded gesso in relief for his ornaments.
Carlo Crivelli 1430?-1495
Carlo Crivelli, a Venetian, as he always signed himself, was trained in the school of the Vivarini, and shows also some Paduan influence. In 1468 he settled in Ascoli, an ancient mountain town in the region known as the Marches.
The Bellini
The Vivarini were the conservative, the Bellini the progressive spirits in the art of Venice. Both Jacopo, the father, and Gentile, the older son, traveled widely. They were interested and active in all the new principles and methods of painting of their day, and added to technical skill the rare gift of genius. Jacopo Bellini followed Gentile da Fabriano from his work in Venice to Florence, where he worked with him in 1423.
Vittore Carpaccio - Fl. 1490-1522
Carpaccio, in the Venetian dialect Scarpazza, was born about 1455 in Venice. A recent theory that he was born in Istria is seemingly disproved. Molmenti believes him to have been a pupil of Lazzaro Bastiani (1425?-1512). Carpaccio is first mentioned in 1490 when he began the series of pictures from the life of St. Ursula, work which shows him a follower of Gentile Bellini.
Associates And Pupils Of Giovanni Bellini
Antonello da Messina began his study of painting in his home in Sicily. In Naples he is said to have seen a picture by Jan van Eyck which so impressed him that he determined to visit Flanders, where he learned the method of painting in oil. In 1473 he settled in Venice, influencing the work of Giovanni Bellini through his new medium and method.
Mount Vernon's Beginnings
MOUNT VERNON, the home and last resting place of George Washington, is situated on the Virginia shore of the Potomac River, in Fairfax County, fourteen miles south of the Capital of the United States. Its wide fame, the deep affection in which it is held, and the familiarity given it by written and painted history, make it difficult for the mind to erase the picture of Washington's home and think of its parked heights as virgin forest overlooking a sailless, undiscovered river.
What Lawrence Found On His Tract
Lossing speaks of the original cottage where hung the dingy iron lantern which during George's occupancy of the mansion lighted the hall. The lantern was taken to Arlington after Mrs. Washington's death, and after a long interval at the National Museum in the Capital City is again in the hall at Mount Vernon.
Mount Vernon - Lawrence Plans George's Career
A PROPER career for George was one of the topics much discussed at Mount Vernon at this time. His two advisers were Lawrence and Lord Fairfax, who had come to Virginia and made his home with his cousin William nearby at Belvoir. Lawrence had fancied a career at sea, hoping that, after some experience before the mast, some influence might be controlled to secure a commission in the Royal Navy.
Mount Vernon - Absences From Home
THE story of Mount Vernon during the next seven years is not notably eventful. Its new master was a bachelor, the leading strings of his developing career drew him easily away from his home, and he has not left in his letters evidence that he was even preparing to organize his estate into anything approaching the perfected condition which it reached later.
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