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The Pope And Science
When, some years ago, the announcement of the prospective opening of the medical school at Fordham University, New York City, was made, the preliminary faculty were rather astonished to find that a number of intelligent physicians expressed surprise that there should be any question of the establishment of a medical school in connection with a Catholic institution of learning.
The Supposed Papal Prohibition Of Dissection
There is a very general impression that the Roman Catholic Church was, during the Middle Ages, opposed to the practice of dissection, and that various ecclesiastical regulations and even Papal decrees were issued which prohibited, or at least limited to a very great degree, this necessary adjunct of medical teaching.
The Story Of Anatomy Down To The Renaissance
We have seen that the supposed prohibition of anatomy by the Popes has no existence in reality. In spite of this fact, which it was easy for anyone to ascertain who wished to consult the documents asserted to forbid, a number of historical writers have insisted on finding religious or ecclesiastical, or theological, opposition to anatomical studies.
The Golden Age Of Anatomy - Vesalius
The Golden Age of discovery in anatomy culminated during the first half of the sixteenth century. This will not be surprising if it is but recalled that this period represents the culmination also of that larger golden age of achievement in art and letters, which has been called the Renaissance. Columbus and Copernicus were giving men a new world and a new universe.
A Papal Patron Of Education And Science
The question of the Papal bill supposed to forbid chemistry, or at least its mother science, alchemy, has necessarily brought into prominence in this volume the name of Pope John XXII. Few Popes in history have been the subject of more bitter denunciation than John.
The Church And Surgery During The Middle Ages
It is with regard to surgery that the opposition of the Church is sometimes supposed to have been most serious in its effects upon the progress of medical science and its applications for the relief of human suffering. President White has stated this, as usual, very emphatically in certain paragraphs of his chapter on From Miracles to Medicine.
Papal Physicians
Most of what historical writers generally, who follow the old traditions of the medieval eclipse of medicine, have to say with regard to the supposed Papal opposition to the development of medical science, is founded on the assumption that men who believed in miracles and in the efficacy of prayer for the relief of disease could not possibly be interested to any serious degree in scientific medicine.
The Popes And Medical Education And The Papal Medical School
After the story of the Papal Physicians, the most important phase of the relations of the Popes to the medical sciences is to be found in the story of the Papal Medical School. While it seems to be generally ignored by those who are not especially familiar with the history of medical education, a medical school existed in connection with the Papal University at Rome during many centuries.
The Foundation Of City Hospitals
Probably the most important work that the Popes did for medical science in the Middle Ages was their encouragement of the development of a hospital system throughout Christianity. The story of this movement is not only interesting because it represents a coordination of social effort for the relief of suffering humanity, but also because it represents the provision of opportunities for the study of disease and the skilled care of the ailing.
The Church And The Experimental Method
There is a very generally accepted false impression with regard to the attitude maintained by the Church during the Middle Ages, especially toward what is known as the experimental method in the gaining of knowledge, or as we would now say, in the study of science. It is commonly supposed that at least before the sixteenth century, the Church was decidedly opposed to the experimental method.
Churchmen And Physical Science At Medieval Universities
There can be no doubt at all in the minds of those who know anything about the early history of the universities, but that the Popes were entirely favorable to the great educational movement represented by these institutions. It is ordinarily supposed, however, that the medieval universities limited their attention to philosophy and theology, and that even these subjects were studied from such narrow religious standpoints, as to make them of very little value for the development of human knowledge or the evolution of the human mind.
The Medieval University Man And Science
Even after the series of demonstrations which we have given that the great thinkers and teachers at the medieval universities were deeply interested in the problems of what we now call natural or physical science, most people will still not be open to conviction that interest in nature was quite as lively in the Middle Ages as at any subsequent period, even our own.
The Church And The Mentally Afflicted
It is especially with regard to the attitude of the churchmen, the people, and even the physicians of the Middle Ages toward insanity, that most opprobrium has been heaped upon the Church and her teachings in the so-called histories of the relations of science to theology or faith.
Opposition To Scientific Progress
The main purpose of this book has not been accomplished unless it has been shown that the Church, the Popes, and ecclesiastics generally during the Middle Ages, and especially during the three centuries before the reformation so-called, far from opposing scientific advance or investigation, were constantly in the position of encouraging and fostering science.
King Edward VII
CHARLES LAMB, referring to the fact that he had no ear for music, said he had been practising God Save the King all his life, humming it to himself in odd corners and secret places, and yet, according to his friends, had still not come within several quavers of it. Lamb did not know his good fortune. King Edward probably regards him as the most enviable man in history.
George Bernard Shaw
I ONCE had the duty of presiding at a gathering assembled to hear an address by Mr. Bernard Shaw. What is the title of your lecture? I asked. It hasn't got one, he replied. Tell them it will be announced at the close. I did so, adding that afterwards he would answer any reasonable questions.
Arthur James Balfour
MR. A. J. BALFOUR has probably done the greatest service to his country of any man of his time. He has saved it from Protection. When Mr. Chamberlain came back from South Africa with the full knowledge of his failure, he resolved on one last desperate throw. He would blot out the past. He would set up a new fever in the blood.
John Singer Sargent
There was probably never a painter who held a more undisputed position in the art of his own day than Mr. Sargent holds. Titian's supremacy was challenged by Veronese and Tintoret. Rubens and Rembrandt ran their course together, one living among princes and the other and greater dying in a garret. Mr. Sargent has the field to himself. The Royal Academy has become a sort of background to his dazzling achievements.
George Meredith
MR. MEREDITH IS the last leaf upon the tree in the spring. Mr. Swinburne and Mr. Hardy belong in some measure to our own generation, both in spirit and in time. But Mr. Meredith gathered in his sheaves in that rich harvest time when Tennyson and Browning, Carlyle and Ruskin, Dickens and Thackeray were his fellow-gleaners; when Darwin was recasting the history of man.
The Premier
I ASKED Mr. Birrell on one occasion what he thought of the oratory of the present Parliament. Oratory he replied. There is none. Parliamentary oratory is dead-dead without hope of resurrection. The House wouldn't listen to it today. The speeches it likes best are in the style of Asquith - plain, lucid statements, gathering up all the arguments, the right word, the clean phrase and no frills.
The Kaiser
WHEN I think of the Kaiser I think of a bright May morning at Potsdam. It is the Spring Parade, and across from where we are gathered under the windows of the old palace the household troops are drawn up on the great parade ground, their helmets and banners and lances all astir in the jolly sunshine. Officers gallop hither and thither shouting their commands.
Sir Edward Gray
IF one were asked to say whose word carried the most weight in Parliament today, there could, I think, be only one answer. Whether in office or out of office, whether to friend or foe, Sir Edward Grey is intrinsically the weightiest speaker of his time. When he sits down in the House of Commons, it is as though discussion has ceased. Other men speak from the bar; he speaks from the bench.
James Keir Hardie
I AM not sure that when the historian of the future discusses our time he will not find the most significant event on that day in 1892 when James Keir Hardie rode up to Westminster from West Ham, clothed in cloth cap, tweed suit, and flannel shirt, and accompanied by a band. The world scoffed at the vulgarity, or shuddered at the outrage, according to its humour.
Lord Northcliffe
I WAS talking one day in the garden of a friend of mine on the subject of Stevenson, when he brought forth a file of Young Folks for 1881, containing the Sea Cook, and another for 1884, in which appeared the Black Arrow. Turning the yellow pages, he casually pointed to an article, one of a series, on Amateur Photography. There, said he, are the modest beginnings of greatness.
Dr. Clifford
WHEN Mr. Balfour said that what he did not like about Dr. Clifford was his style, he expressed the vital difference between himself and his critic. They are as East and West, and never the twain shall meet. Mr. Balfour lives in an atmosphere of aesthetic emotion, delicately sensuous, soft, and languorous.
John Redmond
WHEN I first looked down upon the House of Commons there was one figure that above all others touched the imagination. He sat in the corner seat below the gangway, cold, isolated, silent, a man nursing his gloomy wrath and his unconquerable hope. The sad eyes looked out with a sleepless passion from under the level and lowering brows.
Florence Nightingale
LYING before me is a manuscript. It is written on large sheets of stout paper which have turned yellow with the years. The writing, that of a woman, is bold and free, as of one accustomed to the pen; but the fashion of the letters belongs to a long-past time. It is an obituary notice of Florence Nightingale, written for the Daily News fifty-one years ago, when the most famous of Englishwomen was at the point of death.
The Primate
THERE was probably never a more striking contrast in personality than when Dr. Davidson succeeded Dr. Temple at Canterbury. They remind me of silk and sackcloth, said a witty prelate of them after a certain interview. Davidson really rubbed me the wrong way, yet I hardly knew it, for he had a velvet hat-pad; but Temple took a scrubbing-brush, and fairly scoured away my notions. Around this collision of temperaments so diverse there has gathered a wealth of legend.
David Lloyd George
I WAS seated at dinner one night at 10 Downing Street beside a distinguished Liberal. What a wonderful bust of Chamberlain that is in the hall, I said. Ah, he replied; you mean the bust of Pitt. Yes, it is marvellously like Chamberlain. I wonder, he went on, musingly, as though the question fitted in with his train of thought- I wonder what will happen to Chamberlain's successor.
Mrs. Pankhurst
IT was at the memorable meeting at the Albert Hall at which Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman made his first public utterance as Prime Minister that the meaning of the women's war dawned on me. There had been one or two preliminary skirmishes, at Manchester and again at the Queen's Hall. But here was the first general engagement. The time was well chosen.
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