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The Will And Its Functions
Motor control has already been explained. The physical impulse furnishes the motive power for all muscular activity. As there is no motion in the steam engine without steam, so there is no motion in the body without the impulse. As the engineer directs the steam in the engine, so the intellect guides the power arising in the impulse to the execution of certain specific movements.
Perception, Memory, And Imagination
Consciousness, apperception, and attention have been defined and explained. They are general functions of the intellect, entering as they do more or less into all mental activity. It remains to examine the special functions of perception, memory, imagination, conception, judgment, and reasoning. The treatment of each must necessarily be brief.
Conception, Judgment, Reasoning
Every act of the mind is more or less complex, calling into exercise as it does a variety of activities. Its name depends upon the activity most prominent in consciousness. Imagination is dependent upon memory for its materials, memory upon perception, perception upon sensation. In certain measure, also, the reverse is true, as has been explained. Apperception involves them all.
The Self, Habit, And Character.
The term self has been used frequently in the foregoing pages. It may now be more clearly explained. By the self is meant the child, the man, as the subject from which conscious phenomena constantly rise. It is that which responds to the stimuli from the outside world; that which feels and thinks and wills. Its manifold activities constitute what is called mind.
Children's Instincts And Plays
Instinct is an inborn disposition to certain activities. It manifests itself in impulses more or less efficiently directed to the attainment of specific ends. The stimulus to action may come from external or internal sources.
Manners And Morals
The social instinct, along with all other human instincts, is inventive. It is not satisfied merely with the presence of other people. It soon begins to devise ways and means for its completer gratification. It profits by experiences, as already explained, and learns to respect the individuality of others. It takes pleasure in their pleasure. It grieves when they suffer.
Normals And Abnormals
Normal means natural or conformable to a type. The term may be applied to a child that at birth has a perfect body or to one whose physical or mental development is approximately the same as that of the average child of an equal age. If imperfectly formed, or if much beyond or behind in development, he is called abnormal.
Conclusions
IF this book accomplishes its purpose, you are now fairly well prepared to enter upon the study of the child, for what has been said is intended simply to serve as an introduction to child nature and child problems. Many subjects discussed, as well as others not mentioned at all, are treated quite exhaustively in a scientific way by expert investigators.
The First Christmas Tree
ONCE upon a time the forest was in a great commotion. Early in the evening the wise old cedars had shaken their heads ominously and predicted strange things. They had lived in the forest many, many years ; but never had they seen such marvellous sights as were to be seen now in the sky, and upon the hills, and in the distant village.
The Symbol And The Saint
ONCE upon a time a young man made ready for a voyage. His name was Norss ; broad were his shoulders, his cheeks were ruddy, his hair was fair and long, his body betokened strength, and good-nature shone from his blue eyes and lurked about the corners of his mouth.
The Coming Of The Prince
The wind tore through the streets of the city that Christmas eve, turning umbrellas inside out, driving the snow in fitful gusts before it, creaking the rusty signs and shutters, and playing every kind of rude prank it could think of. How cold your breath is tonight ! said Barbara, with a shiver, as she drew her tattered little shawl the closer around her benumbed body.
The Mouse And The Moonbeam
WHILST you were sleeping, little Dreamy-Soul, strange things happened ; but that I saw and heard them, I should never have believed them. The clock stood, of course, in the corner, a moonbeam floated idly on the floor, and a little mauve mouse came from the hole in the chimney corner and frisked and scampered in the light of the moonbeam upon the floor.
The Divell's Chrystmass
IT befell that on a time ye Divell did walk to and fro upon ye earth, having in his mind full evill cogitations how that he might do despight ; for of soche nature is ye Divell, and ever hath been, that continually cloth he go about among men, being so dispositioned that it sufficeth him not that men sholde of their own frowardness, and by cause of the guile born in them, turn unto his wickedness.
The Mountain And The Sea
ONCE upon a time the air, the mountain, and the sea lived undisturbed upon all the earth. The mountain alone was immovable ; he stood always here upon his rocky foundation, and the sea rippled and foamed at his feet, while the air danced freely over his head and about his grim face. It came to pass that both the sea and the air loved the mountain, but the mountain loved the sea.
The Robin And The Violet
ONCE upon a time a robin lived in the green-wood. Of all the birds his breast was the brightest, his music was the sweetest, and his life was the merriest. Every morning and evening he perched himself among the berries of the linden-tree, and carolled a song that made the whole forest joyous.
The Oak Tree And The Ivy
IN the greenwood stood a mighty oak. So majestic was he that all who came that way paused to admire his strength and beauty, and all the other trees of the greenwood acknowledged him to be their monarch. Now it came to pass that the ivy loved the oak-tree, and inclining her graceful tendrils where he stood, she crept about his feet and twined herself around his sturdy and knotted trunk.
Margaret A Pearl
IN a certain part of the sea, very many leagues from here, there once lived a large family of oysters noted for their beauty and size. But among them was one so small, so feeble, and so ill-looking as to excite the pity, if not the contempt, of all the others. The father, a venerable, bearded oyster, of august appearance and solemn deportment, was much mortified that one of his family should happen to be so sickly.
The Springtime
A CHILD once said to his grandsire : Granpa, what do the flowers mean when they talk to the old oak-tree about death? I hear them talking every day, but I cannot understand ; it is all very strange. The grandsire bade the child think no more of these things ; the flowers were foolish prattlers - what right had they to put such notions into a child's head.
Rodolph And His King
TELL me, Father, said the child at Rodolph's knee, - tell me of the king. There is no king, my child, said Rodolph. What you have heard are old women's tales. Do not believe them, for there is no king. But why, then, queried the child, do all the people praise and call on him ; why do the birds sing of the king ; and why do the brooks always prattle his name, as they dance from the hills to the sea.
The Hampshire Hills
ONE afternoon many years ago two little brothers named Seth and Abner were playing in the orchard. They were not troubled with the heat of the August day, for a soft, cool wind came up from the river in the valley over yonder and fanned their red cheeks and played all kinds of pranks with their tangled curls. All about them was the hum of bees, the song of birds, the smell of clover, and the merry music of the crickets.
Ezra's Thanksgiving Out West
EZRA had written a letter to the home folks, in it he had complained that never before had he spent such a weary, lonesome day as this Thanksgiving day had been. Having finished this letter, he sat for a long time gazing idly into the open fire that snapped cinders all over the hearthstone and sent its red forks dancing up the chimney to join the winds that frolicked and gambolled across the Kansas prairies that raw November night.
Ludwig And Eloise
ONCE upon a time there were two youths named Herman and Ludwig ; and they both loved Eloise, the daughter of the old burgomaster. Now, the old burgomaster was very rich, and having no child but Eloise, he was anxious that she should be well married and settled in life. For, said he, death is likely to come to me at any time : I am old and feeble, and I want to see my child sheltered by another's love before I am done with earth forever.
Fido's Little Friend
ONE morning in May Fido sat on the front porch, and he was deep in thought. He was wondering whether the people who were moving into the next house were as cross and unfeeling as the people who had just moved out. He hoped they were not, for the people who had just moved out had never treated Fido with that respect and kindness which Fido believed he was on all occasions entitled to.
The Old Man
I CALLED him the Old Man, but he wuzn't an old man ; he wuz a little boy - our fust one ; 'nd his gran'ma, who 'd had a heap of experience in sich matters, allowed that he wuz for looks as likely a child as she 'd ever clapped eyes on. Bein' our fust, we sot our hearts on him, and Lizzie named him Willie, for that wuz the -name she liked best, havin' had a brother Willyum killed in the war.
Bill, The Local Editor
BILL wuz alluz fond uv children 'nd birds 'nd flowers. Aint it kind o' curious how sometimes we find a great, big, awkward man who loves sech things? Bill had the biggest feet in the township, but I 'll bet my wallet that he never trod on a violet in all his life.
The Little Yaller Baby
I HEV allus hed a good opinion uv the wimmin folks. I donet look at 'em as some people do; uv course they're a necessity - just as men are. Uv course if there warn't no wimmin folks there would n't be no men folks - leastwise that 's what the medikil books say.
The Cyclopeedy
HAVIN' lived next door to the Hobart place fr goin' on thirty years, I calc'late that I know jest about ez much about the case ez any-body else now on airth, exceptin' perhaps it 's of Jedge Baker, and he's so plaguey old 'nd so powerful feeble that he don't know nothin'.
Dock Stebbins
MOST everybody liked Dock Stebbins, fur all he wuz the durnedest critter that ever lived to play jokes on folks ! Seems like he wuz born jokin' 'nd kep' it up all his life. 0l' Mrs. Stebbins used to tell how when the Dock wuz a baby he use to wake her up haff a dozen times un a night cryin' like he wuz hungry, 'nd when she turnt over in bed to him he wud laff 'nd coo like he wuz sayin', " No, thank ye - I wuz only foolin' .
The Fairies Of Pesth
AN old poet walked alone in a quiet valley. His heart was heavy, and the voices of Nature consoled him. His life had been a lonely and sad one. Many years ago a great grief fell upon him, and it took away all his joy and all his ambition. It was because he brooded over his sorrow, and because he was always faithful to a memory, that the townspeople deemed him a strange old poet.
A Venetian June
The gondola stirred gently, as with a long, quiet breath, and a moment later it had pushed its way out from among the thronging craft at the steps of the rail-way quay, and was gliding with its own leisurely motion across the sunlit expanse of the broad Canal. As the prow of the slender black bark entered a narrow side-canal and pursued its way between frowning walls and under low arched bridges.
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