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Religion And Morals - The Australians Part 2
According to the earlier explorers and missionaries and the careless travellers of even recent years, the morality of the Australian aborigines was of a very low grade. Almost all such observers agreed in placing them in the very lowest stages of culture. They were described as bestial in habits, naked, lacking all sense of virtue; the men cruel to their children and wives.
Religion And Morals - The Australians Part 3
As we have said, however, the fact that higher religions have, in the main, come to a consciousness of higher types of behavior, is in large measure dependent upon the actual presence in primitive ethos of all the fundamental human virtues.
Relation Of Religion To The Pathological In Mental Life
IN the previous chapters of this book our attention has been concentrated in the main upon the method by which religious types of valuation and religious concepts have been built up in men's minds. We have had little to say of these values and concepts as mere mental states, nor have we considered their status in the general mental economy; to certain phases of this problem we shall now turn.
Religious Valuation And Supernaturalism
IN the preceding chapter 2 the question was raised as to whether the valuations of religion can actually be considered valid except upon the basis of some sort of supernatural world of spirits or deities with whom communion is possible and from whom various inspirations or influxes of energy may be expected, if not for the purpose of changing the order of nature, as the primitive man imagines, at least for the purpose of bestowing upon the suppliant strength of will or fresh courage in the midst of sorrow or bitter calamity.
China Proper
THE Chinese empire consists of five grand divisions: China Proper, Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. In treating of this huge conglomerate it will be most convenient to begin with the portion that gives name and character to the whole.Of China Proper it may be affirmed that the sun shines nowhere on an equal area which combines so many of the conditions requisite for the support of an opulent and prosperous people.
A Journey Through The Provinces - Kwangtung And Kwangsi
LET us take an imaginary journey through the provinces and begin at Hong Kong, where, in 1850, I began my actual experience of life in China.From the deck of the good ship Lantao, which had brought me from Boston around the Cape in one hundred and thirty-four days, I gazed with admiration on the Gibraltar of the Orient. Before me was a land-locked harbour in which all the navies of the world might ride in safety.
Province Of Fukien
FOLLOWING the coast to the north some three hundred miles we come to Amoy, the first important seaport in the adjacent province of Fukien. The aspect of the country has undergone a change. Hills attain the altitude of mountains, and the alluvial plains, so conspicuous about Canton, become contracted to narrow valleys.
Province Of Chehkiang
CH…HKIANG, the next province to the north, and the smallest of the eighteen, is a portion of the highlands mentioned in the last chapter. It is about as large as Indiana, while some of the provinces have four or five times that area.
Province Of Kiangsu
BORDERING on the sea, traversed by the Grand Canal and the Yang-tse Kiang, the chief river of the Empire, rich in agriculture, fisheries, and commerce, Kiangsu is the undisputed queen of the eighteen provinces. In 1905 it was represented to the throne as too heavy a burden for one set of officers.
Province Of Shantung
SHANTUNG the people appear to be much more robust than their neighbours to the south. Wheat and millet rather than rice are their staple food. In their orchards apples, pears and peaches take the place of oranges. At Kiao-chao (Kiau-Chau) the Germans, who occupied that port in 1897, have built a beautiful town opposite the Island of Tsingtao, presenting a fine model for imitation, which, however, the Chinese are not in haste to copy.
Province Of Chihli
CROSSING the gulf we reach Taku, at the mouth of the Peiho, and, passing the dismantled forts, ascend the river to Tientsin. In 1858 I spent two months at Taku and Tientsin in connection with the tedious negotiations of that year. At the latter place I became familiar with the dusty road to the treaty temple.
Province Of Honan
PASSING the border city of Weihwei-fu, we find ourselves arrested by the Hwang Ho-not that we experience any difficulty in reaching the other bank; but we wish to indulge our curiosity in inspecting the means of transit. It is a bridge, and such a bridge as has no parallel on earth. Five miles in length, it is longer than any other bridge built for the passage of a river.
The River Provinces
BY THE term river provinces are to be understood those provinces of central and western China which are made accessible to intercourse and trade by means of the Yang-tse Kiang. Pursuing our journey, in twelve hours by rail we reach the frontier of Hupeh.
Provinces Of The Upper Yang-tse
THUS far our voyage of exploration, like one of Cook's tours, has been personally conducted. From this point, however, I must depend upon the experience of others : the guide himself must seek a guide to conduct him through the remaining portions of the empire.We enter the Upper Yang-tse by a long and tortuous passage through which the Great River rushes with a force and a roar like the cataracts of the Rhine, only on a vastly greater scale.
Northwestern Provinces
OF THE three northwestern provinces, the richest is Shansi. More favoured in climate and soil than the other members of the group, its population is more dense. Divided from Chihli by a range of hills, its whole surface is hilly, but not mountainous. The highlands give variety to its temperature-condensing the moisture and supplying water for irrigation.
Outlying Territories
BEYOND the eastern extremity of the Great Wall, bounded on the west by Mongolia, on the north by the Amur, on the east by the Russian seaboard, and on the south by Korea and the Gulf of Pechili, lies the home of the Manchus-the race now dominant in the Chinese Empire. China claims it, just as Great Britain claimed Normandy, because her conquerors came from that region.
Origin Of The Chinese
THAT the parent stock in which the Chinese nation had its origin was a small migratory people, like the tribes of Israel, and that they entered the land of promise from the northwest is tolerably certain; but to trace their previous wanderings back to Shinar, India, or Persia would be a waste of time, as the necessary data are lacking.
The Mythical Period
UNLIKE the Greeks and Hindoos, the Chinese are deficient in the sort of imagination that breeds a poetical mythology. They are not, however, wanting in that pride of race which is prone to lay claim to the past as well as to the future. They have accordingly constructed, not a mythology, but a fictitious history which begins with the creation of the world.
The Three Dynasties
THE Hia, Shang and Chou dynasties together extend over the twenty-two centuries preceding the Christian Era. The first occupies 440 years; the second, 644; and the last, in the midst of turmoil and anarchy, drags out a miserable existence of 874 years. They are grouped together as the San Tai or San Wang, the Three Houses of Kings, because that title was employed by the founder of each.
House Of Chou
THE merciful conqueror who at this time rescued the people from oppression was Wu-wang, the martial king. He found, it is said, the people hanging with their heads downward and set them on their feet. On the eve of the decisive battle he harangued his troops, appealing to the Deity as the arbiter, and expressing confidence in the result.
The Sages Of China
SHALL not introduce the reader to all who justly bear the august title of sage; for China has had more and wiser sages than any other ancient country. Some of them may be referred to in the sequel; but this chapter I shall devote chiefly to the two who by universal consent have no equals in the history of the Empire-Confucius and Mencius.
The Warring States
IN THE first half of the Chou dynasty the machinery moved with such regularity that Confucius could think of no form of government more admirable, saying, The policy of the future may be foretold for a hundred generations-it will be to follow the House of Chou. The latter half was a period of misrule and anarchy.
The House Of Ts'in, 246-206 B. C.
VIEWED in the light of philosophy,- says Schiller, Cain killed Abel because Abel's sheep trespassed on Cain's cornfield. From that day to this farmers and shepherds have not been able to live together in peace. A monument of that eternal conflict is the Great Wall of China.
The House Of Han, 206-b.c.-220 A. D.
THE burning of the books and the slaughter of the scholars had filled the public mind with horror. The oppressions occasioned by the building of the Great Wall had excited a widespread discontent; and Liu-pang, a rough soldier of Central China, took advantage of this state of things to dispossess the feeble heir of the tyrant.
The Three Kingdoms, The Nan-peh Chao, And The Sui Dynasty, 214-618 A.d.
AFTER four centuries of undisputed sway, the sceptre is seen ready to fall from the nerveless hands of feeble monarchs. Eunuchs usurp authority, and the hydra of rebellion raises its many heads. Minor aspirants are easily extinguished; but three of them survive a conflict of twenty years, and lay the foundation of short-lived dynasties.
The T'ang Dynasty, 618-907 A.d.
I HAVE seen a river plunge into a chasm and disappear. After a subterranean course of many miles it rose to the surface fuller, stronger than before. No man saw from whence it drew its increment of force, but the fact was undeniable. This is just what took place in China at this epoch. It is comforting to know that during those centuries of turmoil the Chinese were not wholly engrossed with war and rapine.
The Sung Dynasty, 960-1280 A.D.
ON THE fall of the house of T'ang, a score of factions contended for the succession. During the fifty-three years preceding the establishment of the Sungs, no less than five of them rose to temporary prominence sufficient to admit of being dubbed a dynasty. Collectively they are spoken of as the Five Dynasties.
The Yuen Or Mongol Dynasty, 1280-1368
PARTS of China had been frequently overrun by foreign conquerors; but the Mongols were the first to extend their sway over the whole country. The subjugation of China was the work of Kublai, grandson of Genghis, who came to the throne in 1260, inheriting an empire more extensive than Alexander or Caesar had dreamed of.
The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 A.d.
HUMBLE as was the origin of the founder of the House of Han, spoken of as Pu-i, A peasant clothed in homespun, that of the Father of the Mings was still more obscure. A novice or servant (sacrificulus) in a Buddhist monastery, Chu Yuen Chang felt called to deliver his people from oppression.
The Ta-ts'ing Dynasty, 1644
THE Manchus had been preparing for some generations for a descent on China. They had never forgotten that half the Empire had once been in the possession of their forefathers, the Kin Tartars; and after one or two abortive attempts to recover their heritage they settled themselves at Mukden and watched their opportunity. It came with the fall of the Mings.
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