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William Byrd
Born 1543 ; died 1623. Probably a Lincolnshire man, since he was organist of Lincoln Cathedral at twenty. At twenty-six he became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and for about thirty years lived at Harlington, ten miles out of London.
John Bull
Born c. 1562 ; died 1628. Bull was one of the boys in Queen Elizabeth's Chapel Royal. At the age of about twenty he became organist of Hereford Cathedral. A few years later he became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and a Mus. Doc. of both Cambridge and Oxford.
John Bennett
Born ? ; died ? His one book of Madrigals was published in 1599 and some songs appeared in 1614. Nothing is known of his life. `Bennett was essentially a refined and tuneful musician, with a sound technique so far as it went.
John Dowland
Born 1562; died 1626. Dowland was born in Ireland (Dowlan and Dolan). At eighteen he went to Paris as a page in the train of Sir Henry Cobham, and during his three years' stay there became a Roman Catholic. At twenty-six he took the Mus. Bac. degree at Oxford, and a few years later went to Italy to study with Marenzio.
Richard Edwards
Born about 1523; died 1566. Note that this composer is much earlier than the others here mentioned. He is included because his choral piece In going to my naked (modernized `lonely') bed is likely to be heard at choral concerts and is gramophonically performable.
John Farmer
Born c. 1565 ; died 1605. Farmer was organist of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin. He deserted his post and the Chapter issued an order saying that if they did not see him soon they did not wish to see him at all. So he returned, and shortly after was presented to a country Vicarage.
Giles Farnaby
Born c. 1560; died c. 1600. Very little is known of his life. He published a book of Madrigals and wrote a number of admirable keyboard pieces, many of which are brief but significant and characteristic. He is, to normal people, the most attractive Keyboard Writer of the period, and his works are now increasingly played.
Thomas Ford
Born 1580 ; died 1648. A musician on the staff of the Prince of Wales, and then one of the musicians of Charles I. He is buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. Ford wrote Solo Vocal Music with Lute accompaniment, Madrigals, a little Church Music, &c.
Orlando Gibbons
Born 1583 ; died 1625. He was the son of one of the City Waits of Cambridge--a body of players and singers attached to the Mayor and Corporation. Two of Orlando's brothers became professional musicians. Orlando began life as a choir-boy at King's College (his brother Edward being Master of the Choristers).
Thomas Morley
Born 1558; died 1603. As a young man, Organist of St. Giles', Cripplegate, later of St. Paul's Cathedral, and also, finally, a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. As Byrd was in danger as a Roman Catholic, so Morley was in danger as a Protestant. It appears that he went abroad on some secret service.
Thomas Weelkes
Born 1575; died 1623. Organist of Winchester College, and then of Chichester Cathedral. Hence he did not, like most of the English Choral and Keyboard composers of the period, live the London life.
John Wilbye
Born 1574; died 1638. Wilbye was born at Diss, Norfolk, the son of a well-to-do tanner, who was evidently himself something of a musician, since he bequeathed his lute to his son. When about twenty years of age Wilbye became household musician to the Kytson family of Hengrave Hall, Suffolk, and he continued in the service of this family for thirty years.
Harmony At Last, And The Introduction Of Opera And Oratorio
The reason is probably this. Choral writing, at first looked at purely as Counterpoint (as a weaving of melodies), was gradually tending more and more to be looked at as Harmony (as a building of chords side by side). And music which is thus felt harmonically seems to call-for very definite points of repose interspersed with its passages of activity.
The Century Of Perfection, 1650-1750.
IN travelling quickly along the course of the development of music, what have we so far seen.
The Aria, The Suite, The Opera, And The Oratorio ; The Orchestra.
THE Fugue then, choral or instrumental, is a development from early Church Song. Another development from early song, but this time from the Folk Song, not the Church Song, was the extended Vocal Solo, as introduced into Opera and Oratorio.
Henry Purcell
Born 1658 or 1659 ; died 1695. Purcell was a London boy. He came of a musical family. His father was that Henry Purcell, Master of Musique' mentioned in Pepys's Diary as one of a party of friends who, with music, celebrated at a tavern the decision of the Long Parliament to recall Charles II.
George Frederick Handel
Born 1685 ; died 1759. Handel was born at Halle, in Saxony. His father was a surgeon, who took practical means to stifle his son's musical aspirations, but finding himself unsuccessful, gave way gracefully, and allowed him the best teaching available.
John Sebastian Bach
Born 1685 ; died 1750. The first musical Bach of whom we have knowledge was Veit Bach, born during the fifteen-fifties. He was a miller in Thuringia, and used to play the Zither as the wheel went round. The last was Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach, who was a London piano-teacher for some years, and died, a very old man, in 1845.
Francois Couperin
Born 1668 ; died 1737. Born and died in Paris. The Couperins were a family of musicians (four generations) like their contemporaries, the English Purcells (four generations), the Italian Scarlattis (three generations), and the con-temporary North German Bachs (seven generations).
Jean-philippe Rameau
Born 1683 ; died 1764. His father was organist of Dijon Cathedral. At seven the boy could read any piece of Harpsichord music put before him, but this was about all he would read, which did not please his head master, who asked his father to remove him.
Domenico Scarlatti
Born 1685 (the same year as both Handel and Bach) ; died 1757. He was a son of the great Neapolitan Opera composer, Alessandro Scarlatti.
The New Style In Instrumental Music - Sonata And Symphony
BEFORE entering the next period let us rapidly survey progress to the present point. The diagram opposite will help us to recapitulate.
The Orchestra From The Beginning Of The World To The Birth Of Beethoven
MAN had probably not been man more than a few weeks before he made some sort of a musical instrument. Soon he was making many and they fell into three great classes—Percussion (I put them in probable order of early importance), Wind, and String. I believe that every country in the world, even that least in contact with European civilization, has instruments of the three classes.
Franz Joseph Haydn
Born 1732 ; died 1809. It is hard for a rich man to enter heaven, so most of the great musicians have come either out of poverty or out of the merely relative ease of lowermiddle-class-dom. Haydn's father was a wheelwright, and his mother a cook, and he was born in a small village in Lower Austria.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Born 1756; died 1791. Leopold Mozart, of Salzburg, Violinist, composer of Operas, Oratorios, and Instrumental Music, and author of the then standard `Violin School', out of seven children had but two who survived their first year—Anna Maria, born 1751, and Wolfgang Amadeus, four and a half years younger. We know not what we have lost through the terrible mortality, and especially infantile mortality, of the centuries before ours. Of Purcell's six children, but three survived him, and of Bach's twenty, but nine.
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Born 1770; died 1827. Beethoven was born at Bonn, where his father was a musician in the service of the Elector of Cologne.
Franz Schubert
Born 1797 ; died 1828. Schubert, as will be noted, was a younger contemporary of Beethoven ; he was born twenty-seven years later than Beethoven and died one year later than he.
Beethoven And The Expression Of Emotion In Music
IT is commonly, and quite fairly, said that Beethoven's great contribution to music was to show how it could be made to express deeper emotion.
The Westward Movement Of Christianity
THE purpose of this course of lectures is to study Christianity as the religion of power in relation to its Graeco-Roman background. In shaping the materials I have kept steadily in mind the requirements of a number of people who desire to put behind the sentiments and impulses of religious experience a body of rich and deep conviction.
The Ritual Quest For Safe Conduct
From the beginning man has been a seeker after God. This quest is occasioned by a need for a right relation with God that becomes urgent in proportion as man develops a moral experience. Religion in so far as it is a human development is man's effort to meet this need.
The Ethical Quest Among The Greeks
MAN'S primitive religious impulse is an effective desire to be in right relation to the Power manifesting itself in the universe. By universe we may mean the world without, made up of sensible impressions, or the world within, made up of thoughts and desires. Where God is conceived as manifesting Himself through the external world the desire to be in right relation to Him will ordinarily express itself in ritual forms, and religion will be used as a screen.
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