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The Division Of The Roman Empire
But a brief check was made on Christian advance and its pitiless attempt to suppress Judaism in the coming to the throne of Julian in 361. For this emperor did not endorse the new religion, but accepted the old Roman cult of the Pantheon, though in its most idealized form, preferring to purify instead of abolishing it. (Read More...)
The Talmud
Like the Bible, the Talmud produced a literature still vaster than itself. While the Gemara is a commentary, it needed later commentaries to explain it to the student —for although so diffuse in treatment, its language is terse. Frequently a letter stands for a word and a word for a sentence. Therefore in editions of the Talmud today, Mishna and Gemara together form the text and are printed in the centre of each page, while commentaries in smaller type are grouped around it. (Read More...)
Sayings And Stories Of The Sages Of The Talmud
The writing of parables of which some of the rabbis were masters, is almost a lost art ; it seems to have died out in literature. But no moral is pointed so aptly as through a tale and no teaching impressed so lastingly as through a story. (Read More...)
Sayings And Stories Of The Sages
Work dignifies the worker. He enjoys life who lives by the work of his hands. Work is more pleasing in God's sight than ancestral merit. Whoever showeth compassion is as the seed of Abraham. Remove from the highway what might endanger the property of others. (Read More...)
Beginning Of The Jewish Middle Ages
To turn again to the history proper. The production of the Talmud is part of the story of Babylonian Israel. Except that fanatic outbreak about the year 500 little occurred to disturb the even tenor of their way. They were happy because they had no history. (Read More...)
In The Spanish Peninsula
The wanderings of the Jews have begun. The drift of the migration is westward. They are gradually leaving the Orient and finding homes in European lands. In Gaul, the land that is largely France today, Jewish merchants from Asia Minor had found their way long before the Christian era. After the fall of Judea, many Jewish prisoners and slaves were brought thither. (Read More...)
Arabia
It was in the year 570 that a man was born whose name, Mohammed, was to ring through all Asia, and whom all broad minds now recognize as one of the great religious teachers of mankind. Closely was his fate linked to Israel's, for again was Judaism to inspire a prophet and give birth to another world-religion. (Read More...)
Mohammed
Mohammed, to name him by the title that he afterwards acquired, was born in Mecca, five years after the Byzantine emperor Justinian, and belonged to a branch of the powerful Koreish tribe. He began life as a shepherd. At twenty-five he married Kedija, who had employed him as camel-driver. (Read More...)
Islam And The Jews
Mohammed never forgave the Jews for their refusal to accept him as The Prophet of God, superseding all others. He had accepted so much from them—the fundamental idea of monotheism, the chief points of the Calendar, the Sabbath, the Day of Atonement, much of the Scripture and Midrashic narrative, and many details of the ceremonial law. (Read More...)
The Uffizi Gallery
WE begin our review of the Public Galleries with the Uffizi, as it contains the works of artists from the eleventh to the seventeenth centuries, and thus illustrates the history of art, from the revival to the decline. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery Room - Room Of The Early Masters
THE farthest room of the suite parallel with the first corridor contains the works of some of the earliest painters of the Tuscan school. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Later Tuscan Art
LEAVING the room assigned to the works of the early masters, we commence another epoch in Art. Oil is taking the place of distemper; perspective, which Paolo Uccello and his contemporaries were groping to discover, is no longer a hidden science ; anatomy enables the artist to draw with greater accuracy, and chiaroscuro and colour have their established laws. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Small Pictures By Tuscan Masters
IN a passage leading from that containing the larger pictures of the Tuscan school to the Tribune is a valuable collection of smaller paintings, many of which were executed by the same artists whose pictures we have already described. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Pictures Belonging To Other Schools
THE Tribune is an octagonal room built by the Grand-Duke Ferdinand I to contain his collection of camei and intagli. The cupola above was inlaid with mother-of-pearl, and the room was at first surrounded by carved ebony cabinets; whilst in the centre stood a splendid table of pietra dura, around which were placed the finest antique statues. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Venetian Pictures
THE first room off the third corridor contains a valuable collection of Venetian pictures. To the left of the entrance is a portrait said to be that of the Condottiere, or Captain of Free Companies, Bartolommeo d' Alviano, and, with still less probability, to have been painted by Giorgione. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Sala Di Lorenzo Monaco
A NARROW passage leads to the Sala di Lorenzo Monaco. The walls of this passage are covered temporarily with portraits of various artists, for which there is no space in the two large rooms assigned for the purpose. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - The Portrait, Baroccio And Niobe Rooms
THE two next rooms were built by Cardinal Leopold de' Medici for his collection of portraits of distinguished artists from all countries, beginning from an early period, and, whenever it was possible, painted by themselves. Following the example of the Cardinal, succeeding rulers in Tuscany have invited celebrated painters and sculptors to send their portraits to the Uffizi Gallery. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Drawings By The Old Masters
AT the further end of the third corridor are three rooms, in which are exhibited a selection from the valuable collection of upwards of three thousand drawings belonging to the Museum. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Engravings
A LARGE door next the entrance to the small corridor opens on a flight of stairs, leading to the passage which connects the Uffizi with the Pitti. A considerable part of this passage is hung with a selection from the valuable collection of engravings belonging to the Gallery. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Intagli And Camel
THE cabinet of gems which contains the collections of Intagli and Camei is entered from the Sala dell' Ermafrodito. At the end of the room, under glass, is a coloured terra-cotta bust of- Dante, taken from the mask after death ; it was bequeathed to the Gallery in 1865 by the Marchese Carlo Torrigiani. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Coins And Medals
A VALUABLE collection of coins and medals is likewise kept in a room within the offices of the Director of the Museum. (Read More...)
Uffizi Gallery - Bronzes And Sculpture
TWO rooms decorated with inlaid marbles, off the third corridor, are assigned to a small but interesting collection of antique bronzes, presented to the Museum by the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo. (Read More...)
The Academy
THE entrance to the Academy, once a hospital for the sick, is by a long vestibule with a waggon roof, which adds to its unusual height. At the farther end is the statue of David, by Michael Angelo. (Read More...)
The Pitti Gallery - Large Rooms
THE collection of pictures in the Pitti was made wholly by the Medici, who, about the year 1646, after they had become sovereign princes, brought them to this palace, which was then converted into a royal residence (Read More...)
Tabernacles
THE only remaining specimens of pictorial art to be noticed are the Tabernacles at the corners of the old streets and alleys, which once formed a conspicuous feature in Florence, a fresco by Raffaelle in the Via Faenza, and the collection of tapestries. (Read More...)
Archeological Museum - Egyptian Antiquities
ON the first floor of the Palace of the Crocetta are the Egyptian and Etruscan collections. (Read More...)
Archeological Museum - Etruscan Antiquities
FROM the Cyprian collection the visitor enters the suite of rooms assigned to Etruscan remains. The Etruscan settlements extended over the greater part of Italy, from the plains of Lombardy to the Tiber, and their commercial relations with Egypt, Greece, and Asia introduced various manufactures, which render it difficult to distinguish between native and foreign. (Read More...)
Museum Of The Bargello
OPPOSITE the Badia rises the solid pile of the Bargello, formerly known as the Palazzo del Podestà, and now used for a Museum of Italian Art and Manufacture. (Read More...)
The Univerity Of Florence
THE University of Florence, according to Matteo Villani, dates from the fourteenth century, when it was decreed by the Republic that Chairs of Philosophy, Rhetoric, and other branches of knowledge should be founded, in the hope thereby to restore some prosperity to the city, and induce those who had abandoned Florence, after the frightful visitation of the Plague in 1348, to return and inhabit the town. (Read More...)
The Environs Of Florence
The environs of Florence owe their beauty to a race of farmers who are far more industrious, intelligent, and liberal than their neighbours, born to the same sun and soil. Leopoldo toiled to make his peasants all comfortable, and the steward takes care that none shall be rich... (Read More...)
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