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Germany's Object Lesson to the United States
During the first two years of the war many Americans, especially those in the West, observed the great events which were happening with great interest, no doubt, but with a feeling of detachment. The war was a long way off. The Atlantic Ocean separated Europe from America, and it seemed almost absurd to think that the Great War could ever affect us. (Read More...)
America Transformed by War
The entrance of America into the tremendous conflict on April 6, 1917, was followed immediately by the mobilization of the entire nation. Business and industry of every character were represented in the Council of National Defense which acted as a great central functioning organization for all industries and agencies connected with the prosecution of the war. (Read More...)
How Food Won the War
Food won the war. Without the American farmer the Entente Allies must have capitulated. Wheat, beef, corn, foods of every variety, hermetically sealed in tins, were thrown into the scales on the side of the Entente Allies in sufficient quantities to tip the balance toward the side of civilization and against autocracy. (Read More...)
The United States Navy in the War
Long before war was declared the United States Government had been engaged in preparation. It had realized that unrestricted submarine warfare was sure to lead to war, and though for a time it was preserving what it was pleased to call an armed neutrality the President doubtless was well aware what such an armed neutrality would lead to. (Read More...)
China Joins the Fighting Democracies
The circumstances connected with the entrance of the Republic of China into the World War were as follows: On February 4, 1917, the American Minister, Dr. Reinsch, requested the Chinese Government to follow the United States in protesting against the German use of the submarine against neutral ships. On February 9th Pekin made such a protest to Germany, and declared its intention of severing diplomatic relations if the protest were ineffectual. (Read More...)
The Defeat and Recovery of Italy
None of the surprises of the World War brought such sudden and stunning dismay to the Entente Allies as the news of the Italian disaster beginning October 24, 1917, and terminating in mid-November. It is a story in which propaganda was an important factor. It taught the Allies the dangers lying in fraternization between opposing armies. (Read More...)
Redemption Of The Holy Land
FROM the beginning of the war the German General Staff and the British War Office planned the occupation of Palestine and Macedonia. Germany wanted domination of that territory because through it lay the open road to Egypt and British prestige in the East. (Read More...)
Transportation Problems
WHEN America entered the war there was a very great increase in the volume of business of the railroads of the country. The roads were already so crowded by what the Allies had done in purchasing war supplies, that a great deal of confusion had resulted. (Read More...)
Ships And The Men Who Made Them
Ships were needed, and needed urgently, and one of the very first acts of the American Government was to authorize their production. Congress therefore appropriated for this purpose what was then the extraordinary sum of $1,135,000,000. (Read More...)
Germany's Dying Desperate Effort
IN the spring of 1918 it must have been plain to the German High Command that if the war was to be won it must be won at once. In spite of all their leaders said of the impossibility of bringing an American army to France they must have been well informed of what the Americans were doing. (Read More...)
Chateau-Thierry, Fields Of Glory
NOWHERE in American history may be found a more glorious record than that which crowned with laurel the American arms at Château-Thierry. Here the American Marines and divisions comprising both volunteers and selected soldiers, were thrown before the German tide of invasion like a huge khaki-colored breakwater. (Read More...)
England And France Strike In The North
UP to July 18, 1918, the Allied armies in France had been steadily on the defensive, but on that date the tide turned. General Foch, who had been yielding territory for several months in the great German drives, now assumed the offensive himself and began the series of great drives which was to crush the German power and drive the enemy in defeat headlong from France. (Read More...)
Italy's Terrific Drive
FOR many months after the great Italian stand on the Piave there was inactivity on both fronts in Italy. The Italians had been re-enforced by troops from France and Great Britain and their own army was now larger than it had been at any other time. (Read More...)
Bulgaria Deserts Germany
DURING the year 1916 there was little movement in the Balkans. The Allies had settled down at Saloniki and entrenched themselves so strongly that their positions were practically impregnable. These entrenchments were on slopes facing north, heavily wired and with seven miles of swamp before them, over which an attacking army would have to pass. (Read More...)
The Central Empires Whine For Peace
THE Allied victories in France during the months of August and September of 1918, led to a new peace offensive among the Central Powers. It was very plain to the German High Command, as well as to the Allied leaders, that Germany's great ambitions had now been definitely thwarted. (Read More...)
Battles In The Air
HE who conquers the fear of death is master of his fate. Upon this philosophy fifty thousand young men of the warring nations went forth to do battle among the clouds. The story of these battles is the real romance of the World War. (Read More...)
Health And Happiness Of The American Forces
SINCE the fateful day when 'Cain slew Abel, thereby setting a precedent for human warf are, no fighter has been so well protected from disease and discomfort of mind and body, so speedily cured of his wounds, as the American soldier and sailor during the World. War. (Read More...)
The Pirates Of The Under Seas
GERMANY relied upon the submarine to win the war. This in a nut-shell explains the main reason why the United States was drawn into the World War. Von Tirpitz, the German Admiral, obsessed with the theory that no effective answer could be made to the submarine, convinced the German High Command and the Kaiser that only through unrestricted submarine warfare could England be starved and the war brought to an end with victory for Germany. (Read More...)
Approaching The Final Stage
The Kaiser, Ludendorff and von Hindenburg abandoned hope. The command went forth from the German general headquarters to retreat, retreat, retreat, while Prince Maximilian of Baden, appealed to America for an armistice. (Read More...)
Last Days Of The War
FROM November 1st until November 11th, the day when the armistice granting terms to Germany was signed, the collapse of the German defensive was complete. The army that under von Hindenburg and Ludendorff had smashed its way over Poland, Roumania, Serbia, Belgium, and into the heart of France, was now a military machine in full retreat. (Read More...)
The Drastic Terms Of Surrender
THE end of the war came with almost the dramatic suddenness of its beginning. Bulgaria, hemmed in by armies through which no relief could penetrate, asked for terms. (Read More...)
Peace At Last
WAR came upon the world in August, 1914, with a suddenness and an impact that dazed the world. When it seemed, in 1918, that mankind had habituated himself to war and that the bloody struggle would continue until the actual exhaustion and extinction of the nations involved, peace suddenly appeared. (Read More...)
America's Position In War And Peace
BY common consent of the Entente Allies, President Wilson was made the spokes-man for the democracy of the world. As Lloyd George, Premier Clémenceau of France, Premier Orlando of Italy, and other Europeans recognized, his utterances most clearly and cogently expressed the principles for which civilization was battling against the Hun. (Read More...)
The War By Years
GERMANY'S military strength developed during forty years of preparation, and the offensive plans of the German High Command developed in connection with an extraordinary spy service in France, Belgium, Russia, England and the United States, culminated in a simultaneous campaign on land and by sea, affecting these five nations. (Read More...)
Behind America's Battle Line
IT is important that a general summary of America's military preparations, a detailed description of the operations behind the battle line and a detailed chronology of America's principal military operations in France during the year 1918 should be presented to the reader. (Read More...)
General Pershing's Own Story
A well-organized General Staff through which the commander exercises his functions is essential to a successful modern army. However capable our division, our battalion, and our companies as such, success would be impossible without thoroughly coordinated endeavor. A General Staff broadly organized and trained for war had not hitherto existed in our army. (Read More...)
President Wilson's Review Of The War
ON December 2, 1918, just prior to sailing for Europe to take part in the Peace Conference, President Wilson addressed Congress, reviewing the work of the American people, soldiers, sailors and civilians, in the World War which had been brought to a sueeessful conclusion on November 11th. (Read More...)
Chronology Of American Operations In France
The following chronology of the major operations of the American Expeditionary Forces in France from April 28 to November 11, 1918, was prepared by General March and was included in his report to the Secretary of War. (Read More...)
Under Persian Sway
The restoration of the Jews to Judea did not materialize as gloriously as Isaiah of Babylon had prefigured in his sublime addresses (Isaiah xl-xlvi.) Life's realizations very often disappoint their anticipations. (Read More...)
Greek And Jew
Here then were two extreme parties in Israel—one, the Hellenists, whose mania for everything Greek made them almost traitors to the Jewish cause ; and on the other hand the Chassidim, who observed the law with a rigidity greater than its own demands; and in the midst the great bulk of the people, who tried to avoid the extremes of both. (Read More...)
Judea Fights For Its Faith
Antiochus was succeeded by his son of the same name, an eccentric despot who claimed the title of Epiphanes, the illustrious, though styled by his enemies Epimanes the madman, and in rabbinic literature Harasha, the wicked. (Read More...)
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