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Fennel Flower
The seeds of the Fennel flower were strewn on bread, like poppy seeds, and are used as a spice in Europe, Africa, and the Orient. In Germany they are put into bread instead of cumin, as they are in Turkey and Egypt. They are used in cakes like anise and sesame and also to flavor wine.
Sweet Basil
The basils are almost the most delightful of all seasoning herbs. Most of them are native to India. Bailey says there are from fifty to sixty species in the warmer parts of the world. They are neat little shrubs, fragrant and pleas-ant to the palate, each differing a little from the other in looks and flavor.
Bush Basil
Basil is a popular flavoring herb. In France it is used in turtle soup and stews, and in Italy it is an important ingredient in bean soup, and many other dishes. The dried leaves are put into snuff. I find it a pleasant flavoring in all dishes having tomatoes, in cheeses, fruit drinks, and in soups with other herbs. The flavor is flower-like.
Sweet Marjoram
The oil from sweet marjoram is very fragrant and exceedingly powerful, resembling the attars from certain of the thymes, and has been present in perfumes and unguents from the earliest times and today is used for perfuming French soaps more than the English, also for scenting hair pomades.
Pot Marjoram
Pot marjoram is native to Europe and is so hardy it positively ramps over the ground. It smells thymier than sweet marjoram, and is a much bigger, coarser, and hairier plant. It is somewhat straggly with sprawling, leafy stems and pinkish or white flowers, and in certain situations would make a fine ground cover.
Opium Poppy
The opium poppy likes a fairly rich soil and sunlight; comes readily from seed; and if necessary should be thinned. Poppies are notoriously difficult to transplant. In their native lands they are sown in the fall and flower in April and May. In the North we sow them after frost and they flower in July.
Rose Geranium
The rose geranium comes from the Cape of Good Hope and is an attractive shrubby plant. It grows four feet high in warm climates, but where the winters go below freezing it has to be grown in a pot and does not reach its full height.
Parsley
It seems to be the general opinion that the moss-curled kinds are the most attractive to grow for garnishes, although I prefer the fern-leaved to all others. In the breeding of parsleys a dark green color and a cut or curled texture seem to be desirable qualities.
Anise
The anise is native to Greece, Asia Minor, and Egypt. It is a graceful, attractive plant, adding to the beauty of the herb garden.
Cowslip
John Evelyn gives a recipe for cowslip wine, which requires three pecks of the flowers, being used to two gallons of water. The leaves are made into salads, and the English, according to Eleanour Rohde, used both leaves and flowers constantly for a potherb, in cowslip cream, puddings, and tarts, as well as in wine.
Damask Rose
The damask rose is of course not a herb, but because of its beauty, Old World associations, and constant use in cooking, it rightly belongs in our garden. When I bought the damask rose twelve years ago, none were obtainable in the United States, and mine came to me from a famous rose grower in France, but now they can be bought in American nurseries. This is the rose of Damascus, the petals of which furnish the most fragrant of all rose oils.
Rose de Provence
At Nanking, according to Bois, Les Plantes Alimentaires, a rose is grown for eating, which seems to be a variety of the Rugosa rose. The dried petals perfume not only teas and drinks, as is commonly done in other parts of China, but bakers use a large amount for their cakes, and brewers prepare a kind of liqueur of roses.
Rosemary
The commercial oils come from southern France, Spain, and the Dalmatian Islands. It is said, during the harvest season one can smell the rosemary off the Spanish coast long before sighting land.
Rue
Rue is one of the bitter herbs, and comes from southern Europe. It is a pretty plant with its grayish-green, much cut leaves and yellow-green flowers, and is in the garden because of sentiment, not for any present-day use.
Sage
Dried sage leaves flavor pork, and stuffings of duck, goose, veal, sausages, and cheeses. They should be used discreetly, as sage is strong and apt to override other flavorings. Too much sage gives some people indigestion.
Clary Sage
The leaves formerly flavored all homemade wine, metheglin, ale, and beer. The German name of clary is mustcateller saltier, which means muscatel sage, and comes from the custom of using the leaves, along with elder flowers, to impart the flavor of muscatel raisins to Rhenish wines. Omelettes are made with clary leaves, and the flowers are used in aromatic teas.
Burnet
The leaves are supposed to convey the flavor of fresh cucumbers, but either our climate or my palate may be to blame for not detecting this. Formerly the leaves were steeped in cool tankards and the Pennsylvania Germans used it in a drink called cool cup.
Summer Savory
The leaves and flowering tops are put into stuffings, on salads, and boiled with peas, for stuffing sausages or a pork pie, or used as a garnish. Boulestin and Hill say it is everywhere put into broad beans (hence its German name, bohnenkraut), both in the first boiling and in the final preparation either la poulette, or au lard, when it is chopped with parsley.
Winter Savory
The winter savory, also called Calamintha montana, Lam., is native to Europe and North Africa, is hardy, and one of the most decorative plants in the herb garden with its little white florets scattered amongst the bright green leaves as if it had just begun to snow. It smells pleasantly of resin and spice.
Sesame
In China, Egypt, and India the oil extracted from the seeds is used like olive oil in cooking. Moore and Rock, Chinese Recipes, say that fat in Chinese recipes is always sesame oil.
Tansy
In the United States the center of the production of tansy is in Michigan, where 2,500 pounds are distilled annually. For home consumption the leaves should be cut off as they appear, and one writer says cutting off the flower heads seems to prolong the production of the leaves.
Thyme
The plants should be cut when they are in full flower and then dried in the shade to preserve their color as much as possible. The flowers and leaves are both used for flavoring and in potpourris.
Nasturtium
Nasturtium flowers decorate salads and the stems and young leaves are eaten either in salads or sandwiches. The seeds chopped up can be used in sauces, as capers are, where a peppery, spicy taste is desired, and the seeds and flower buds are used in pickles.
Violet
In my garden the violets grow both in the rocks and in beds in partial shade. They increase very rapidly from runners and make charming ground covers. They are said to like a chalky soil. In the south of France, where they are grown for their perfume, they are planted under orange, lemon, and olive trees.
Cooking With Herbs
To cook with herbs no special equipment outside of the usual kitchen utensils is necessary except a mortar and pestle for pounding certain of the seeds and leaves. Although rose water, the Eastern spices, and pepper are included in some of the recipes, in general, when the herbs are used, no other condiments are required except salt, sugar, and at times a little of the juice or peel of lemon or orange, which seem to heighten the herb flavorings.
General Makeup Of The Racing Yacht
I have now given, in a general way, the most necessary points that go to make up speed in yacht racing. They all overlap each other and rely on one another ; all are important and cannot be too carefully worked up to perfection.
Yachts - Detailed Explanation Of The Design
THEORY, practice, experience, actual tests, lifelong study, all based on common sense, are the requisites that help to make the successful design. As the saying goes, a yacht cannot sail faster than the slowest part of the hull can be driven.
Yachts - Points On Expert Helmsmen
Know enough about your racing rules to cover any bluff, and never take unnecessary chances unless they are absolutely essential, but where they are needed, play the game for all it is worth, as every second counts in the racing boats of today.
Yachts - Set The Racing Sails
THE set of the racing sails, the all-important factor, the only means of propulsion for the wind-driven craft, means something in itself, as the yacht with this power alone moves at a speed faster than a great many of the largest steam yachts.
Yachts - Construction Of The Body Of The Yacht
THE racing surface or the outer skin of a yacht depends largely on the material, workmanship, and designed type of construction.
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