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Education In Germany
I think any one who reads in the German pedagogical literature of our day has now and then a sense of hopelessness of any educational originality.
Education In France
The French are not deficient in sentiment. No one can know them even from their literature, or from the most superficial travel, — still more, no one can come to know them as personal friends,—without recognizing the deep, spontaneous genuineness of their emotional nature.
Education In Great Britain And Ireland
Popular education in England has been a slow growth, beset by enemies, or rather by friends who were so anxious to have the good work prosper in their own way that it has come near being torn in pieces of them...
Education In Europe
Some 50,000 children between the ages of four and six are in the kindergarten. The first kindergarten was opened in 1863, and this grade of school was recognized as a part of the educational system in 1872.
Education In Australia
There are many technical schools of advanced grade, among them the School of Mines at Adelaide and the Technical College at Sydney. Four of the states have established agricultural colleges.
Education In Canada
Of the eight universities in the Dominion, Dalhousie, at Halifax, is the oldest (1818), and Toronto is the largest (over 2500 enrolled).
Education In South America
Higher education centers in the University of Los Andes, at Merida, and the National Academy of Fine Arts, the School of Arts and Trades, and the Central University, all at Caracas.
Education In Asia
Prior to 1905 there was no system of elementary education. In that year China began the foundations of a modern system based upon occidental models.
Education Review
BEFORE leaving this study of the organic structure of the school systems of the world's nations, we shall do well to gather into more compact compass the salient features of each.
Education - General Review
It is a truth, now become axiomatic, that the great fact in education during the past thirty years has been the discovery of the individual. The courses of study in kindergarten or university are not for general but for special use.
Infant Education
WE have seen that infant schools fall into two large groups, according to whether they are regarded as preparatory to the elementary schools or as children's gardens.
Elementary Education
It is an axiom in my mind, that our liberty can never be safe but in the hands of the people themselves, and that, too, of the people with a certain degree of instruction. This it is the business of the State to effect, and on a general plan.
Secondary Education
The striking thing about the Roman secondary school is that the culture, which conditioned its existence, was foreign ; and this has remained true of the secondary schools of all nations which have appeared in the subsequent history of Western civilization.
Higher Education
The university touches all human interests, is concerned with the past, the present, and the future, ranges through the whole history of letters, sciences, arts, and professions, and aspires to teach all systematized knowledge.
The Beginning
As I weed and cultivate the basils, savories, and thymes in my garden, touch their furry or glossy leaves, and breathe in their spicy scent, they seem like such old friends it is difficult to realize that only three years ago these aromatic herbs, except for the parsley, sage, and mint, were quite unknown to me.
Definition and Explanation of Herbs
Hampton says the scent of all flowers and most leaves is caused by an essential oil which is well distributed through the whole plant. In the flowers it is sometimes known as an attar, or otto, and this is generally a delicate, complex mixture of substances with a similar but not identical scent.
Herbs and the Written Word
The first European to write on plants was the Greek Theophrastus, called the father of botany, who was born in 370 B.C. He was a pupil of Plato and later of Aristotle. He describes how perfumes were compounded from thyme, bergamot, mint, saffron, lilies, sweet marjoram, and iris, and mentions the same fixatives and tropical spices as compose the perfumes of today.
The Witches' Cauldron
Much of the early herb lore was empiric, but a large portion of it had no other basis than superstition. A strange, but quite comprehensible, reason for attributing certain qualities to the herbs was their physical appearance. Rupturewort, Herniaria, was expected to cure ruptures because of its knot-like flowers.
Herbs in the United States
As was to be expected of so primitive a civilization, the Indians used few flavorings in preparing their food. They ate wild onions and the roots of wild caraway, Carvum Kellogii, and cooked tubers of Asclepias tuberosa with buffalo meat, skunkweed with deer, and tubers of Asclepias syriaca and Monarda menthaefolia with other meats.
In the Herb Garden
Herbs come readily from seed and are not finical or difficult to raise. Many of them are natives of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean, where they grow on dry, poor, and often rocky ground, and that is why they like a warm, sunny exposure, preferably facing south or east, and a well-drained, dry soil.
Herbal Teas
One of the pleasures of a herb garden is the harvest of leaves and flowers which can be infused into such teas. Originating teas by using new combinations of leaves and blossoms is a field open to a modern Confucius.
Sweet Flag
The sweet flag, thought to have come originally from India, grows along streams and lakes throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The sweet flag is mentioned in the Bible and by Theophrastus. In Parkinson's day it was used medicinally and the leaves and roots when tied to a hive of bees were thought both to prevent them from wandering away and to attract other bees.
Chives, called ciboulette by the French, grow wild throughout Europe, in Siberia, and in North America along the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, and further north. The variety now used probably comes from the European Alps. Many writers think the flowers are pretty and that the plant belongs in the flower garden.
Dill is native to Asia Minor and Europe. The gray-green stems, feathery leaves, and lacy umbels of greenish yellow florets compose a handsome, fragrant plant.
The angelica is native to Europe and Asia, mostly in cool northern climates. It is a large, handsome plant with spreading, tropical-looking leaves, and a dome-shaped in-florescence borne on tall stems and is most decorative as an accent or background to other herbs.
There seem to be three plants which are called chamomile : the German chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla, the Roman chamomile, Anthemis nobilis, which comes with a single crown of white ray florets, and another which has a double row.
The seed of my chervil plants came from France, where it is a favorite seasoning. It looks and tastes like refined parsley. The chervil frisé of the French catalogues is identical with curled chervil and is the variety to choose in preference to the type, for with its curled and frilled leaves it is prettier.
Horseradish, also called Radicula armoracia, comes from southeastern Europe and is naturalized in America. It is so rampant, once it has been planted in the garden, that it seems foolish to grow it, but as it is such an important flavoring I have included it. The plant is coarse, with large leaves and inconspicuous flowers.
The gray, much threaded foliage suggests the name Old Man. Bailey says the name Abrotanum means elegant in Greek, descriptive of the form of the leaves and their aromatic odor. This artemisia is a feathery gray-green plant and the leaves smell, without crushing, of daisies mixed with spice.
The wormwood is a handsome, furry, gray-leaved plant, almost shrub-like, growing to three feet in height. It is native to Europe whence it was brought to America and has escaped into the wild. The plants die down to the ground every winter but come up again in the spring and are hardy.
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