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When The Dew Falls
ONE of the most interesting and instructive phenomena in the lessons of nature is the falling of the dew—a seeming miracle which begins with the setting of the sun, and goes on mysteriously, collecting and distributing its countless exquisite water jewels, all through the long stillness of the night, only to be dispelled again by the heat of the rising sun.
The Coming Of The Frost
But shortly they will flame forth upon every hillside, one vast torch, lighted to do honour to the passing of autumn; and all the work of the Frost Spirit.
Etchings By Jack Frost
IN ZERO weather, in mid-winter, when the earth is frozen to a great depth below the surface, when in driving over the unpaved country roads they give forth a hard metallic ring...
Mysteries And Beauties Of The Snow
MOST of us have given little time or very serious thought to the study of the snow, and the marvellous detail which goes to fashion the individual snow crystal.
Ice And Its Formation
WHEN in mid-winter, pond, lake, and river are covered with a glittering icy coat of mail, when the rushing babble of the little brook sounds strangely muffled and restrained because of its icy fetters...
The Beneficial Rain
We knew it would rain for the poplar's showed the white of their leaves, the amber grain shrunk in the wind and the lightning now is tangled in tremulous skeins of rain.
The Function of the School
In order to know how to manage a school well, it is important to have right views regarding what is to be accomplished. Every person active in educational work should understand the nature and extent of his responsibilities, and the means by which his duties are to be performed.
School Management - Physical Culture
Educational reformers in England, Canada and the United States are strongly advocating more attention to physical training. Physiology and hygiene should form part of the curriculum. Sanitary conditions cannot be ignored by trustees. The health of the child, his rapid growth during school age, and the effect of this rapid development upon his ability to study, demand the careful attention of all school authorities.
School Management - Intellectual Development
The main business of the school is the intellectual development of the pupils. This statement does not mean that a higher object than growth in intelligence is not the end of education.
The Place of Religion in School
The great importance of moral training as a department of education, and the generally accepted opinion that morality must rest on a religious basis, have given rise to much discussion regarding the place of religion in the Public School.
School Management - Moral Training
The highest aim of education is the formation of character. Sound ethical training, no doubt, calls for the due cultivation of the intellectual and physical faculties, as well as the development of the emotional nature. Mere physical and intellectual power may, however, do harm if achieved regardless of moral training.
School Management - Character Building
The formation of character is the end to be sought in all the efforts of the teacher. The educated person is one who possesses mental and physical power, systematized knowledge, intellectual skill, pure and elevated tastes, and right habits.
The Teacher's Qualifications
Good work in the school requires the teacher to be constantly watchful. Eternal vigilance is the price of freedom from trouble. The teacher needs good eyes and ears. A teacher who is so mentally blind or deaf that he does not know what is going on in his class, will fail as a disciplinarian.
School Management - Discipline
The essential feature of discipline is training. The good teacher is the good disciplinarian. No system of government is to be commended that is not effective in character building.
School Incentives
It is evident that the best results are not attainable by means of artificial incentives. In the hands of a poor teacher they may be productive of bad results, A good teacher has little need of them. At best they are merely temporary expedients.
School Management - Punishments
Punishments should not be the same for pupils of different ages, dierent dispositions, or different attainments. The physical, intellectual and moral development of the child must be considered in determining the degree and nature of the penalty.
School Organization
School organization is a system of arrangements that is designed to secure constant employment, efficient instruction, and good discipline. Its object is to enable teachers and pupils to do the most effective work with the least friction and in the shortest possible time.
School Programmes
At one time it was supposed that reading, writing and arithmetic formed a course of study sufficiently comprehensive for all who did not aspire to a secondary education. It was also held that only classics and mathematics had much value as instruments of higher culture.
School Management - Methods of Conducting Recitations
Ability to conduct recitations is the best test of a teacher's professional skill. Failure in imparting instruction is entire failure. Success in giving lessons usually crowns the teacher with success in his calling.
Principles of Teaching
Ability to hold the attention is one of the first requisites of a teacher. Self-effort on the part of the pupils is essential. Compulsory attention does not educate. Inattention must be promptly checked. It is a blunder to go on with a lesson when any member of the class is idle.
School Management - The Art of Questioning
The most valuable method of conducting a recitation is the question method. The teacher who knows how to question his class has fairly mastered the pedagogic art. The prime object of teaching is to get pupils to think rightly. Judicious questioning is the best means of arousing mental activity.
School Management - Written Examinations
The immediate object of written examinations is to ascertain the knowledge and ability of students. Except in the case of very elementary classes, oral tests, though valuable, are not sufficient. Reproduction in writing of what a pupil has acquired is generally the best test of what he knows and of what he can do.
Making Of Our Middle Schools
The schools, in general, have occupied an intermediate position between church and state, responding always to influences from both sides, but affected chiefly in earlier times by ecclesiastical considerations and in later times chiefly by considerations of a political character.
Grammar Schools Of Old England
The grammar schools of Edward the Sixth and of Elizabeth, in a word the system of middle-class education which by the close of the [sixteenth] century had changed the very face of England, were the outcome of Colet's foundation of St. Paul's.
Early Colonial Grammar Schools
THE fathers of our early colonies had, many of them, been educated in the Latin schools of Old England. William Penn received his early schooling at the Chigwell Free Grammar School.
Colonial Schools Systems
The four colonies, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Maryland, bravely kept up some sort of colonial system of education down to the time of separation from the mother country.
Later Colonial Schools
But next after churches, the Society was concerned in the establishment of schools. These were mostly of elementary grade. But when our second Episcopalian college was projected the Society furthered the movement, and gave it substantial support.
Colonial Schoolmasters And Scholars
In this state of society, no public secondary school seems to have been even thought of for the great body of citizens the middle or lower middle class. It was thought desirable that all should know how to read.
Colonial Schooling And School Administration
It appears that a new spirit was coming into American education, which, however gradually, was transforming old institutions and making new ones, and becoming really it-self through this process.
English Academies
The earlier academy movement in this country, prior to the Revolution, belongs to the middle colonies. This was a time of experiment, in which the real character of the American institution was as yet undetermined.
Early American Academies
IN view of those beginnings which have already been traced, we may say that the academy movement was an outcome of nonconformity. While largely in line with the educational tradition of the time, it involved also a considerable range of educational dissent, along with the more obvious element of religious dissent.
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