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Italian Gothic - Comparative Analysis
The desire for a great central space, as at Florence and Siena, shows the influence of Roman models.
Spanish Gothic - Influences
The geographical position of Spain in the south-west of Europe is unique ; it is only separated from France on the north by the chain of the Pyrenees Mountains and from Africa on the south by the narrow Straits of Gibraltar.
Spanish Gothic - Architectural Character
The character of Gothic architecture in Europe, which gives the general principles common to all countries, has already been given.
Spanish Gothic - Examples
These and many more similar buildings are eloquent of the power and position of the Catholic Church and of the Spanish grandee, while the well-preserved town walls of such old-world cities as Avila and Leon indicate the unsettled conditions of those times.
Spanish Gothic - Comparative Analysis
Cathedral plans are of great width and comparative shortness, and the " coro " or choir, like that in Westminster Abbey, is generally in the nave, west of the crossing, but with a low screened passage between choir and sanctuary, as in Burgos, Toledo, and Barcelona.
Renaissance Architecture In Europe
The Renaissance of Classic architecture, which started in Italy in the fifteenth century, spread westwards throughout all those countries of Europe which had formed the Western Roman Empire.
Italian Renaissance - Influence
The Renaissance in Italy is best considered geographically under the three great distinctive cities of its activity, Florence, Rome, and Venice, which are here taken as centres rather than as schools.
Italian Renaissance - Architectural Character
The Renaissance in Italy may be divided broadly into three periods, viz.: Early (fifteenth century), Middle (sixteenth century), and Late (seventeenth and eighteenth century), and Modern Architecture is referred to on.
Italian Renaissance - Florence
BRUNELLESCHI (A.D. 1377–1446), one of the most famous sons of Florence, entered the competition among sculptors in A.D. 1401 for the bronze north doors of the Baptistery, Florence—this competition marking the introduction of the Renaissance.
Italian Renaissance - Rome
BRAMANTE (A.D. 1444–1514) was born in Florence two years before Brunelleschi died, but as he studied in Rome he is regarded as the first Roman Renaissance architect of note. He was trained under the painter Andrea Mantegna, and was probably also a pupil of Alberti and began his independent work in the city of Milan.
Italian Renaissance - Venice
PIETRO LOMBARDO (A.D. 1435—1515) was one of a family who impressed their personality on the architecture of the sea-girt city.
Italian Renaissance - Modern Architecutre
Modern architecture, not only in Florence, Rome, and Venice, but also in the whole of Italy, has, with few exceptions, been faithful to the Renaissance style, but it is natural that, with such a heritage of monuments, there should be comparatively few modern buildings of importance.
Italian Renaissance - Comparative Analysis
Symmetry and compactness of plan, adapted to town rather than country buildings. Staircases enclosed by walls were roofed by sloping barrel vaults. Church naves were planned to support coffered vaults, domes on pendentives, or timber ceilings.
French Renaissance - Influences
France had, since the Romanesque and Gothic periods, become one unitedKingdom, with Paris as the centre, from which the new Renaissance influence radiated to all parts of the country.
French Renaissance - Architectural Character
The architectural character of the Renaissance in Europe has already been described as regards features common to it in all countries.
French Renaissance - Examples
The Chateau de Blois (A.D. 1508), begun in the thirteenth century, was continued in the fifteenth and afterwards added to by Louis XII and Francis I, and was finally completed by Gaston d'Orleans in the reign of Louis XIV.
French Renaissance - Modern Architecture
Modern French architects, although assertive of their right to choose their own type of architecture, have, apart from certain sporadic outbursts, remained faithful to the Classical styles, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts has fostered a spirit of academic correctness in conformity with these precedents.
French Renaissance - Comparative Analysis
The architectural character of Italian and French Renaissance architecture has been considered, and a Comparative Table of the two styles is here given.
French Renaissance - Architecture
The irregularity peculiar to Gothic buildings was occasionally retained as suitable to the exigencies of the country-side.
German Renaissance - Influences
Geographical central position in Europe of the country inhabited by the Teutonic peoples enabled it to receive Renaissance art from Italy on the south and from France on the west ; while, as the states in this great tract of country were independent, there could be no central and unifying influence as in France.
German Renaissance - Architectural Character
The general character of Renaissance architecture in Europe has been dealt with as a whole, with regard to those features which are common to it in all countries.
German Renaissance - Examples
Heidelberg Castle (A.D. 1531–1612) well exemplifies different periods of the Renaissance in the various additions to the Mediaeval castle. The general design suffers from over-ornamentation.
German Renaissance - Modern Architecture
The Gothic revival in the nineteenth century produced numerous secular buildings throughout Germany, notably castles in Bavaria, on the Rhine, and buildings in the cities.
German Renaissance - Comparative Analysis
The internal courtyard of the Mediaeval period, often irregular in form, was continued in castles and country houses, and the general picturesqueness was increased by balconies and external stair-turrets.
Belgian And Dutch Renaissance - Influences
The position of Belgium and Holland naturally continued, as in Mediaeval times, to lay them open to the dual influences of France and Germany ; while with the shifting of European boundaries which brought the Netherlands within the dominions of Charles V, there ensued the additional influence of Spain.
Belgian And Dutch Renaissance - Architectural Character
The general character of Renaissance architecture in Europe has already been described, and when we turn to Belgium we find buildings of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, which, though similar in type to those of France, are characterised by greater freedom, often amounting to riotous extravagance in design, which produced a picturesque result, largely aided by the use of brick in conjunction with stone.
Belgian And Dutch Renaissance - Examples
The Town Hall, Antwerp (A.D. 1565), erected by de Vriendt, is typical of the municipal activity and commercial prosperity of this great city port with its fine harbour for the merchant vessels which sailed the Western Seas.
Belgian And Dutch Renaissance - Comparative Analysis
The internal planning of Gothic churches was often trans-formed to suit changes in ritual, but this applies more especially to Holland. New churches were not built till late in the period, and then chiefly in Belgium, where they followed the ordinary Renaissance model or affected the newer Baroque freedom in plan.
Spanish Renaissance - Influences
Spain, in the Gothic period, could well be geographically considered as the Peninsula and merely as a country in the extreme south-west of Europe.
Spanish Renaissance - Architectural Character
The Renaissance in Spain was based on the same general principles as in other European countries, and its growth may be divided into three tolerably distinct phases, determined by the characteristics predominant in the different periods.
Spanish Renaissance - Examples
The Palace, Guadalajara (A.D. 1461), and the Collegio de San Gregorio, Valladolid (A.D. 1488–96), both have patios in which are mingled Moorish, Gothic, and Renaissance detail, showing the complexity of treatment in the transition period.
Spanish Renaissance - Comparative Analysis
In churches, wide naves are usual, and a general largeness of scale is prevalent in the later rectangular churches, which are some-times without aisles.
English Renaissance - Influences
The island influence still continued, as in previous periods, to produce those pronounced modifications which stamp all English architecture with an essentially national character.
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