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French Romanesque - Influences
France holds a central position between north and south on the western confines of Europe, and has great natural highways along the valleys of the Rhone, Saone, Seine, and Garonne which connect the Mediterranean with the Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel.
French Romanesque - Architectural Character
Romanesque architecture in France dates from the eighth to the twelfth century. The character differs in the North and South, which are approximately divided by the Loire valley. Certain further modifications crept in according to the various provinces into which France was divided at this period.
French Romanesque - Examples
Southern France was divided into the provinces of Aquitaine, Auvergne, Provence, Anjou, and Burgundy, each with its special architectural peculiarities, the extent of which can be traced in the examples which follow.
French Romanesque - Comparative Analysis
In the south, churches were cruciform in plan and frequently had aisleless naves covered with domes on pendentives, due to Byzantine influence, or had naves covered with barrel vaults whose thrust was taken by half-barrel vaults over aisles in two storeys.
German Romanesque - Influences
Germany was through many centuries a conglomeration, first of various tribes fighting amongst themselves, and then of various independent states, principalities, and powers occupying the great central district of Europe.
German Romanesque - Architectural Character
German Romanesque architecture dates from the eighth to the twelfth century. The style, owing to historical influences (as mentioned above), bears a striking similarity to that of Lombardy, and in some instances lasted as late as the middle of the thirteenth century, more especially in the Rhineland and Saxony, where it is found in its most highly developed form.
German Romanesque - Examples
Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral (A.D. 796804), built by the Emperor Charlemagne as his royal tomb-house, resembles S. Vitale, Ravenna. The entrance, flanked by staircase turrets, leads into a polygon of sixteen sides, 105 ft. in diameter.
German Romanesque - Comparative Analysis
Naves and aisles of churches are vaulted in square bays, one vaulting bay of the nave being equal to two of the aisles, as in Worms Cathedral, and the Church of the Apostles, Cologne.
Gothic Architecture In Europe - Influences
The conditions of the Christian Church and the rise of monastic communities precedent to the Gothic period have been dealt with under Romanesque architecture. The immense power of the popes in the thirteenth century can be judged from the way.
Gothic Architecture In Europe - Architectural Character
The architectural term Gothic was employed by Sir Christopher Wren in the seventeenth century as a term of reproach for this style of architecture, which had departed from those Classic lines which he was instrumental in re-establishing in this country.
Gothic Architecture In Europe - Examples
Cathedrals in Mediaeval times occupied the place of first importance in national life, and men were engaged on their construction from one generation to another. They were the history books of the period when few people could read, and thus were a medium of popular education.
Gothic Architecture In Europe - Comparative Analysis
A comparative analysis of Gothic arhcitecture.
English Mediaeval Architecture - Influences
The varied geological formation of Great Britain was responsible for the variety of materials employed in building.
English Mediaeval Architecture - Architectural Character
The character of Romanesque and Gothic architecture in Europe has already been considered. The development of Mediaeval architecture in England from the departure of the Romans till the sixteenth century shows a more complete sequence of styles than in other countries.
English Mediaeval Architecture - Examples
The different types of buildings erected during the Middle Ages have been given in the chapter on Gothic architecture in Europe.
English Mediaeval Architecture - Comparative Analysis
The evolution of English architecture is here traced by comparison of plans, walls, openings, roofs, columns, mouldings, and ornament through the Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Early English, Decorated, Perpendicular, and Tudor periods.
Scottish Architecture
ARCHITECTURE in Scotland followed on much the same lines as in England until the middle of the fifteenth century, when it assumed a more definitely national character.
Irish Architecture
Early Christian buildings in Ireland are archaic, and existing remains indicate that the building monks largely followed types of pre-Christian times. The chief interest lies in Celtic Architecture from the sixth century to the English Conquest, A.D. 1169.
French Gothic - Influences
France, on the western confines of Europe, may be considered, from an architectural standpoint, as divided into two parts by the River Loire. With the Franks on the north and the Romance races on the south, architecture was influenced not only by geographical position, but also by racial differences.
French Gothic - Architectural Character
The character and principles of Gothic architecture generally must be borne in mind in considering its developments in any particular country.
French Gothic - Examples
The unique position occupied by cathedrals in the general social and civic life of Mediaeval times, which is nowhere more pronounced than in France, has been described in the chapter on Gothic architecture in Europe.
Belgian And Dutch Gothic - Influences
The Netherlands lie wedged in between countries inhabited by Teutonic and Latin races, and the dual influence can be traced in the architectural development: for, broadly speaking, Belgian architecture has been under French, and Dutch under German influence.
Belgian And Dutch Gothic - Architectural Character
The architecture of Belgium during this period (A.D. 12001550) was governed by the same general principles as applied to all Gothic architecture in Europe, but was of two types, that of the hilly part to the east partaking of German, and that of the low-lying part (Flanders) of French character, while Spanish features are also observable.
Belgian And Dutch Gothic - Examples
Tournai Cathedral (A.D. 0661338) illustrated the styles of three successive periods. The nave is Romanesque, the circular-ended transepts, with four towers and the central lantern, are Transitional (A.D. 1146), and the choir, with complete chevet, is fully developed Gothic, very light and elegant in character after the French manner.
Belgian And Dutch Gothic - Comparative Analysis
Church plans with a chevet as at Bruges, after the French model, were generally short in proportion to their width, and the most marked development in this respect may be seen in the seven aisles of Antwerp Cathedral.
German Gothic - Influences
The country in Central Europe, formerly a collection of states which became the German Empire, was, by its geographical position, in contact with the architecture of neighbouring countries.
German Gothic - Architectural Character
Gothic architecture in Germany was similar in general character to that in other parts of Europe, and may be considered to have lasted from A.D. 1250-1500.
German Gothic - Examples
S. Gereon, Cologne, on the site of a circular tomb house, 126 ft. in diameter, erected by Helena, mother of Constantine, has an unusual grouping, recalling the tomb house at Aix-la-Chapelle.
German Gothic - Comparative Analysis
Church plans are of varied types, and the larger number were derived from German Romanesque churches with apsidal ends, usually semi-octagonal. They are found not only both east and west, as at Naumburg, but also at ends of transepts, when they are known as triapsal plans, as in S. Elizabeth, Marburg.
Italian Gothic - Influences
Geographical influence in Italy varied considerably in the north, centre, and south of this long, narrow peninsula.
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