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Greek Architecture - Public Buildings
The Agora, or open-air meeting-places for the transaction of business, were large spaces surrounded by stoae or colonnades, giving access to the public buildings, such as temples, basilicas, stadia, and palaestrae or gymnasia.
Greek Architecture - Comparative Analysis
The Greeks employed the circular plan for open-air theatres and occasionally for other buildings, such as the Tholos, Epidauros, and the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens, while the octagonal plan was adopted for the Tower of the Winds, Athens.
Roman Architecture - Influences
The foundation of Rome is of uncertain date, but is generally taken as B.C. 750, and until B.C. 500 its development and destinies were in the hands of the early kings.
Roman Architecture - Architectural Character
The abundance of statues brought from Greece led to the formation of wall niches for their reception, and these were either semicircular or rectangular, and were occasionally flanked by columns supporting a pediment, to form a frame for the statue, or were fronted by a screen of columns, as in the Pantheon.
Roman Architecture - Examples Of Etruscan Architecture
Examples of Roman architecture are found not in Italy only, but wherever Roman government extended, as at Nimes and Arles in France ; Tarragona and Segovia in Spain ; Treves and Aix-la-Chapelle in Germany ; Constantine and Timgad in North Africa ; Baalbek and Palmyra in Syria, besides Silchester and Bath in England.
Roman Architecture - Forums
Besides these general forums, others, such as the Forum Boarium, served as markets for special purposes. Pompeii, and indeed any town of importance, followed the example of Rome and had a forum as a centre of civic life.
Roman Architecture - Rectangular Temples
Roman temples are an amalgamation of Etruscan and Greek types ; for while in many respects they resembled the Greek, the typical prostyle portico and podium were derived from Etruscan temples.
Roman Architecture - Circular And Polygonal Temples
Christian baptisteries were evolved from these little circular temples, which therefore hold an extremely interesting position in architectural evolution.
Roman Architecture - Basilicas
Basilicas, which were halls of justice and commercial exchanges, indicate clearly, by their central position, the importance of law and business in Old Rome. These buildings, which are of a pronounced type, are a link between Classic and Christian architecture.
Roman Architecture - Thermae
The Thermae (Gk. thermos = hot) or palatial public baths of Imperial Rome, which were probably derived from the Greek Gymnasia, portray, even in their ruin, the manners and customs of the pleasure-loving populace and are as characteristic of Roman civilisation as are the amphitheatres.
Roman Architecture - Theatres
The two theatres at Pompeii, as well as those at Taormina and Syracuse in Sicily, at Fiesole near Florence, at Ostia near Rome, at Timgad in North Africa, and Aspendus in Asia Minor, are other Roman theatres.
Roman Architecture - Amphitheatres
There are Amphitheatres at Pompeii (B.C. 70), Pozzuoli, Capua, Syracuse, Pola, Nimes, Arles, and El Djem (near Carthage), and there are some rough remains known as the Maumbury Rings at Dorchester in England.
Roman Architecture - Circuses
The Circus of Maxentius, Rome (A.D. 311), of which vestiges still remain, consisted of a long, open, circular-ended arena with a spina on its longer axis, and was surrounded by tiers of marble seats, supported on raking vaults.
Roman Architecture - Tombs
Roman tombs are much more numerous than the Greek and are similar to the Etruscan, such as that of Regulini-Galassi at Cerveteri.
Roman Architecture - Triumphal Arches
The Arch at Orange, in France, which is one of the finest triumphal arches outside Italy, has Corinthian half-columns between the arches and three-quarter columns at the angles. The Marble Arch, London, is a modern instance of the triple-arch type.
Roman Architecture - Town Gateways And Archways
Gateways were sometimes added either at the ends or in the centre of bridges as at the Roman bridge, Alcantara, which has a portal over the central pier.
oman Architecture - Pillars Of Victory
Rostral columns were frequently erected in the time of the Emperors to celebrate naval victories, and took their name from the rostra, or prows of captured ships, with which they were embellished, while an inscription recorded the deeds which led to their erection.
Roman Architecture - Palaces
The Palace of Diocletian, Spalato (A.D. 300) now forms the greater part of the Mediaeval town of Spalato in Dalmatia, which has therefore been called a city in a house.
Roman Architecture - Roman Houses
Roman dwelling-houses are of three types : (a) The domus or private house ; (b) the villa or country house ; and (c) the insula or many-storeyed tenement.
Roman Architecture - Aqueducts
Aqueducts at Tarragona, Segovia, Spalato, and elsewhere still testify to the importance which the old Romans attached to a good water supply, and the regulations connected with it throw a light on the detail of Roman administrative methods, both for the Imperial City and for the cities of the Roman Provinces.
Roman Architecture - Bridges
Roman bridges in Spain are of two types, both of which are equally impressive : (a) the many-arched type, as exemplified in the extreme length of the bridges at Salamanca and Alcantara (A.D. 105) ; (b) the single-arched type, such as the later Moorish and Gothic bridge at Toledo which, with the romantic sweep of its gigantic arch, spans the rocky valley of the Tagus.
Roman Architecture - Fountains
The ancient Roman regard for running waters, which almost amounted to adoration, found expression not only in triumphant aqueducts and monumental thermae, but also in these numberless fountains in the cities which made up that great Empire.
Roman Architecture - Comparative Analysis
The characteristic of Roman art lies in its forcefulness. The Romans were rulers by nature, and Roman art was the outward expression of the national love of power.
Early Christian Architecture - Influences
The Early Christian period is generally taken as lasting from Constantine to the death of Gregory the Great (A.D. 604), although in Rome and many Italian cities it continued up to the tenth century.
Early Christian Architecture - Architectural Character
The architectural character of basilican churches is rendered impressive and dignified by the long perspective of oft-repeated columns which carry the eye along to the sanctuary ; a treatment which, combined with the comparatively low height of interiors, makes these churches appear longer than they really are, as is seen in S. Paolo fuori le Mura, and S. Maria Maggiore.
Early Christian Architecture - Examples
Basilicas or Roman halls of justice probably served the Early Christians as models for their churches, which thus form a connecting link between buildings of pagan Classic times and those of the Romanesque period which followed.
Early Christian Architecture - Comparative Analysis
The Early Christians followed the basilican model for their new churches and may also have used old Roman halls, baths, dwelling-houses, and even pagan temples as places of worship.
Byzantine Architecture - Influences
Byzantium, renamed Constantinople after its Imperial founder, and also called " New Rome," was inaugurated as capital of the Roman Empire in A.D. 330. Like Rome in Italy it stands on seven hills, and is at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmora, where Europe and Asia are only divided by a narrow strip of water.
Byzantine Architecture - Architectural Character
The character of Byzantine architecture, which dates from the fourth century to the present day, is determined by the development of the dome to cover circular, polygonal, and square plans for churches, tombs, and baptisteries.
Byzantine Architecture - Examples
S. Front, Perigueux (A.D. 1120), is an interesting product of Byzantine influence carried west along trade routes by Venetian merchants, and is an almost identical copy in plan of S. Mark, Venice.
Byzantine Architecture - Comparative Analysis
It was as well for the fame of Byzantine art that it had no chance of entering into rivalry with the art of Greece. It was compelled to seek another form of expression, and this necessity gave rise to the wonderful mosaic pictures which clothe Byzantine churches in the glowing beauty of surface decoration.
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