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School And Home Gardens
Europe has something over 100,000 school gardens. There are 20,000 in Austria alone. France, Sweden and other countries do not give State aid to a school that has no garden.
Why Grow Alfalfa?
Alfalfa hay is, pound for pound, equal to thrashed oats. It pays better to grow alfalfa than to buy wheat bran. It requires less work to grow alfalfa than to grow other field crops.
Birds And Agriculture
Many people consider bird study a fad but scientists have long ago placed it beyond that. They have proven that the value of birds to the agriculturist and horticulturist is almost beyond calculation.
Insects And Agriculture
The teacher of insects must have that important attribute of a cultured man or woman which we call open-mindedness. All squeamishness must be put aside and we must go back to nature as little children.
Insects of The Field And Garden
Next to the corn root worm, the corn root louse or aphis causes the greatest loss. The aphides are generally associated with ants which use the aphides for their cows. The ants carry the aphides to pasture at the foot of some growing corn.
Cut Worms
They eat the vegetables of our garden as well as our corn. The worst feature of their mischief is that they do not eat the whole plant but cut it off just beneath or above ground. Thus a large number of plants are necessary to satisfy each larva.
Chinch Bug
The chinch-bug is, according to Professor Forbes, the worst insect pest that the farmer has to combat, especially in his small grain. The chinch-bug lives on any member of the grass family and some other plants.
Insects Of The Fruit Patch
The codling moth is perhaps the best subject with which to begin the study of insects unless it be in neighborhoods where apples are not grown. The presence of this insect in a child's apple which he brought for his dinner, impresses the importance of the study of insects upon him.
Plant And Animal Diseases
If the season is wet and warm enough, a study should be made of one of the downy mildews. These attack a large variety of plants, such as lilac, grape, cucumbers, onions, beans, potato, peach, plum and other plants.
Weeds - Plants Enemies
When the child comes to the study of agriculture in the seventh and eighth grades or, better, in the high school, he should learn to identify ten to twenty of the common and troublesome weeds. He should learn to know them from seed, leaf, stem, or sprouting seedling.
Rural Life Institutions
The study of agriculture means more than the study of how to make a material living. Agriculture is a mode of life. The study of agriculture is partly the study of how to find happiness in the open country.
Good Roads
Our country is new and the pioneer was too busy conquering a continent to build good roads. Distances are great in America and hence good roads cost more per capita than in other countries.
The Country Church
Mission of the Country Church. - Life in the country cannot be made satisfying unless the local church minis-ter reasonably well to the spiritual and social needs of the country people.
Rural Government
Rural Government Inefficient.—Rural government in the United States to-day is inert and dead. People should not be asked these days to die for their country but they should be asked to live for it.
The Country Home
The Home Necessary in the Country. Of all the institutions in the country, the home is the most necessary. No other occupation has the home and the business so closely related.
Labor Saving Machinery
The ideal farm should have a small building about midway between the house and the barn. In this building there is to be an engine capable of transmitting power to either the house or the barn.
A Home For The Teacher
The housing of the teacher for the country school is one rural problem of which country people are unconscious. But, as National Commissioner of Education Claxton says, the housing of the rural teacher is one of the vital problems for the country.
The Rural School
Of all of the institutions able to help to make country life attractive, the rural school is the most important.
Festivals
For enabling the teacher to get into touch with the neighborhood, for enabling the school to do something that appeals to the people, I know of nothing more beneficial than the observance of festival occasions.
Corn Festival
For introducing a rural school to a community, I know of nothing that can be used to better advantage than the Seed Corn Festival. This is not because we wish to make a fad of teaching corn but it is because the corn plant means more to farmers than does any other single plant.
Boys' And Girls' Clubs
Rural schools of to-day are very different institutions from those attended by our fathers and grandfathers. When father went to school, the country school was attended by from fifty to eighty pupils and it was taught by a strong intellectual leader.
Night Schools
Helping the older boys and girls is a matter of too much importance to be left to anything so transient as fairs and institutes or to clubs and short courses. It is a matter of importance enough to justify the expenditure of some money and the organization of institutions to supply the need.
How To Begin Work In Agriculture
But how shall I begin the work in agriculture? - asks the teacher. I answer, since school generally begins in September and since that month is par excellence the month for selecting and gathering seeds, it would be a good plan to begin by having the pupils make collections of seeds.
A Year's Work Correlation Work With Corn
Take class to field and study stand, barren stalks, and diseases as outlined in chart following this correlation work. Study location of ears on stalk, leaves, rain guard, ligule, tassel; pull up some stalks and study roots, watch for signs of insect injuries, insects and fungous diseases.
Booklets Educational
Booklets have been used for years in the German and other European schools but have not been used in America until recently. They have, however, recently been introduced and are a wonderful, quickening and vitalizing factor in the schools.
Lesson Plans Agriculture
There are a number of reasons why well-made lesson plans are especially valuable to the teacher of agriculture.
The Structure And Care Of Eggs
Aim.—To learn the structure so as to know how to care for eggs. Materials.—Two or three eggs, two or three saucers, and one or two long needles.
Hens For More Eggs
The average American hen lays less than 80 eggs in one year. Five hundred hens from different countries, but all entered and kept for the year in the North American egg-laying contest at Engelside, near Philadelphia, averaged over 170 eggs each in one year.
Spain - The Story Of The Nation
The art of Spain was, bone and spirit, a part of the Spanish character, shaped and inspired as the latter had been by the racial, historical and geographical conditions out of which it was moulded.
Characteristics Of Spanish Painting
Had the artists of Spain painted for the general public or followed their own bent in the pursuit of beauty, they would doubtless have developed branches of genre and still life painting that might have emulated the work of the Holland artists.
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