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On Paramagnetic And Diamagmetic Forces
The notion of an attractive force, which draws bodies toward the centre of the earth, was entertained by Anaxagoras and his pupils, by Democritus, Pythagoras, and Epicurus; and the conjectures of these ancients were renewed by Galileo, Huyghens, and others, who stated that bodies attract each other as a magnet attracts iron.
Physical Basis Of Solar Chemistry
Omitting all preface, attention was first drawn to an experimental arrangement intended to prove that gaseous bodies radiate heat in different degrees. Near a double screen of polished tin was placed an ordinary ring gas-burner, and on this was placed a hot copper ball, from which a column of heated air ascended.
Elementary Magnetism
We have no reason to believe that the sheep or the dog, or indeed any of the lower animals, feel an interest in the laws by which natural phenomena are regulated.
Physics - On Force
A SPHERE of lead was suspended at a height of 16 feet above the theatre floor of the Royal Institution. It was liberated, and fell by gravity. That weight required a second to fall to the floor from that elevation; and the instant before it touched the floor it had a velocity of 32 feet a second.
Contributions To Molecular Physics
Having on previous occasions dwelt upon the enormous differences which exist among gaseous bodies both as regards their power of absorbing and emitting radiant heat, I have now to consider the effect of a change of aggregation.
Life And Letters Of Faraday
Undertaken and executed in a reverent and loving spirit, the work of Dr. Bence Jones makes Faraday the virtual writer of his own life. Every-body now knows the story of the philosopher's birth.
The Copley Medalist Of 1870
Thrity years ago Electro-magnetism was looked to as a motive power which might possibly compete with steam. In centres of industry, such as Manchester, attempts to investigate and apply this power were numerous.
The Copley Medalist Of 1871
DR. JULIUS ROBERT MAYER was educated for the medical profession. In the summer of 1840, as he himself informs us, he was at Java, and there observed that the venous blood of some of his patients had a singularly bright red color.
Death By Lightning
PEOPLE in general imagine, when they think at all about the matter, that an impression upon the nerves—a blow, for example, or the prick of a pin—is felt at the moment it is inflicted. But this is not the case.
Science And The Spirits
Since the time when the foregoing remarks were written I have been more than once among the spirits, at their own invitation. They do not improve on acquaintance. Surely no baser delusion ever obtained dominance over the weak mind of man.
The Whooping, or White Crane (Grus americana), the largest bird we have, measuring as it does over four feet in length, rarely comes east of the Mississippi, although its migrations extend from South America to the Arctic Circle.
Rails, Gallinules, Coots
A rarer sight still is to see a clapper rail running, with head tilted downward and tail upward, in a ludicrous gait, threading in and out of the grassy maze.
Virginia Rail
When the original grant of Queen Elizabeth included nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi that the Massachusetts Bay Colony did not take in, the Virginia rail's name would have been more appropriate than it is today.
The Yellow, or New York, or Yellow-breasted Rail (Porzana noveboracensis), an even more skulking, timid species than the sora, has a reputation for rarity that doubtless the blackbirds, bobolinks, and marsh wrens, which alone can penetrate into the mysteries of the sedges, would express differently were they able to retail secrets.
Common Gallinule
The Purple Gallinule (Ionornis martinica), a common bird in the southern states, nests so far north as southern Illinois and Carolina, and occasionally strays northward to New England and Wisconsin.
American Coot
But coots are shy of men, albeit the young and old alike have flesh no one not starving could eat; and they usually live in some inaccessible pond or swamp, especially at the nesting season.
The Northern Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus), a very small, slaty gray, chestnut red, buff and white bird, the smallest of all the swimmers, passes along the coasts of the United States, from its nesting grounds in the Arctic regions, to winter in the tropics.
American Avocet
The avocet is, perhaps, the best swimmer among the waders, owing to its webbed toes. The thick, waterproof plumage of its under parts keeps its body dry.
Blacked Necked Stilt
Wading about, with decided and measured steps, in shallow pools, preferably among the salt and alkaline marshes, where the avocets often keep them company, the stilts pick up, from first one side, then the other, insects and larvae, small shell fish, worms, fish fry, etc., often plunging both head and neck under water to seize some deep swimmer.
By the first of August the woodcocks, deserting the low, wet lands, scatter themselves over the country in corn fields, grassy meadows, birch covered hillsides, alder runs, pine forests, and thick, cool, moist undergrowth, near woods; and now they moult.
Wilson's Snipe
When the early frosts of autumn harden the soil at the north, so that the bill can no longer penetrate it, the snipe, migrating by night, again visit us, this time fatter, more lazy, or at any rate less nervous than they were during the mating season.
The Long-billed or Western Dowitcher (Macrorhamphus scolopaceus), the representative of the preceding species from the Mississippi Valley westward to Alaska, may be distinguished from it chiefly by its slightly larger size and longer bill and possibly by its more uniformly rusty under parts and the heavier dusky bars on its sides in the summer plumage only.
Stilt Sandpiper
Like most birds that spend part of their lives at least in Arctic desolation, these sandpipers, not knowing man, have little fear of him, being of the same gentle, confiding disposition, apparently, as the dowitchers.
The Purple Sandpiper, Winter or Rock Snipe (Tringa maritima), an extremely northern species, also observed by General Greely near Thank God Harbor, comes down our Atlantic coast between November and March, but not often farther than Long Island or the Great Lakes.
Pectoral Sandpiper
Baird's Sandpiper (Tringa bairdii), far more common in the interior than on the Atlantic coast, closely resembles the whiterumped species in size and plumage, and may be distinguished from it by the fuscous instead of white middle upper tail-coverts, says Mr. Frank Chapman.
Least Sandpiper
The Western Semipalmated Sandpiper (Ereunetes occident-ails), the representative of the preceding species west of the Mississippi, differs from it in having the plumage of its upper parts more distinctly chestnut red, the breast more heavily streaked, and the bill a trifle longer; but neither species differs perceptibly in habits from the least sandpiper, and neither one is larger than an English sparrow.
Red Backed Sandpiper
In the spring, when lively impulses move all birds to interesting performances, these dunlins, as our English cousins call them, go through some beautiful wing manoeuvres calculated to inspire admiration in the speckled breast of the well beloved.
Among the semipalmated, the least, and other sandpipers they often hunt with, sanderlings may be readily picked out by the attitude of the head and their fearful eagerness.
Marbled Godwit
Conspicuous by its size and coloration among the waders, the great marbled godwit might be confused only with the long-billed curlew at a distance where the slight curve upward of the godwit's bill and the pronounced downward curve of the curlew's could not be noted.
Greater Yellowlegs
Noisy, hilarious chatterers, their shrill notes, four times repeated, coming from an entire flock at once, after the manner of old squaws, these tattlers, that are always inviting kindred flocks to join theirs, excite other birds to restless habits like their own, and keep themselves well advertised in the marshes and about the bays and estuaries where they feed.
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