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Egyptian Painting And Colour Decoration
PAINTING, as we understand the word, in which is expressed the gradation of tones of colour, the juxtaposition of harmonious tints, perspective, and the rendering of light and shade effects, was never really understood by the ancient Egyptians.
Chaldean And Assyrian Painting And Decoration
Although stone was plentiful in Assyria its use in the buildings was confined to the portal figures, dadoes, plinths, lower wall linings, and pavements. The main structural mass of their buildings consisted, like those of the Chaldæans, of bricks and mortar.
Ancient Persian Painting And Decoration
THE architecture, sculpture, and decorative motives of Ancient Persian art were hardly indigenous to that country, which geographically is known as the plateau of Iran.
Grecian And Roman Colouring And Painting
THE polychromatic decoration of the Greek temples in the Classic period was a development of the earlier colour application to the buildings of primitive Greece. Many fragments of painted plaster and other evidences of colour decoration from the halls and palaces of Tiryns, Mycenæ, and Thera have been brought to light during the excavations carried out by MM. Schliemann, Dôrpfeld, and others in 1885.
Later Roman Art
ROMAN art was already in its decadence before the end of the Empire, and Christianity itself, together with the invasion of Italy by the Germanic races, were the chief factors in the transformation and decline.
FROM the fourth century, or even earlier, mosaic became the chief decoration of all religious edifices, but all the picture subjects of these mosaics were not of the sacred order, for we find that from the date of the early Christian buildings, through many subsequent centuries, the influence of antique art both as to subject and technique is clearly apparent.
Byzantine And Romanesque Miniature Painting
The latter century was chiefly noted for the production of plentiful work in small objects of art, such as miniatures, ivory carvings, enamels, metal-work, and small portable mosaics.
Celtic Illumination
The object of the foregoing consideration of illuminated manuscripts was an attempt to explain the position they held in relation to the development of Italian painting, but there is another great class of illuminated manuscripts, the Irish Celtic Books of the Gospels and Psalters, so distinctive from the Byzantine and Roman manuscripts that they demand here a few words of description.
Technical Methods Of Tempera Painting
Tempera painting, either on wood or on canvas, was the favourite method of the Italian painters from the earliest times up to the adoption of oil painting in Italy, and was carried to great perfection in the works of Ghirlandaio (1449–1494) and Botticelli (1444 ?-1510).
Encaustic Painting
ENCAUSTIC, or wax-painting, and the fixing or finishing of the same by the application of heat, was practised by the ancient Greeks and Romans, as one of the methods of painting on panels and on walls.
Wall Painting In Fresco
For a list of the colours that may be safely used in fresco, and for further information on this subject the reader is referred to the author's treatise on Fresco Painting, Its Art and Technique, 1909, where the system of the modern Spirit Fresco is also described.
Artist's Pigments
THE pigments used by the ancients were mostly derived from native earths and minerals, and were very few in number. Mention has been made in regard to these in the early chapters of this work, when treating of ancient polychromy and painting.
Modern Artist's Pigments
Artists of today have the advantage of a more extended palette than the old painters had. Some, however, may say that this is a doubtful advantage, but it cannot be denied that in addition to our still possessing the best of the old colours, there are quite a number of even more permanent ones, notably of green and yellow pigments, which chemists have added to the modern artist's colour box.
Varnishes And Oleo-Resinous Media
ONE of the oldest kinds of varnish was the oleo-resinous vehicle known under the name of Vernice Liquida, and was probably of the same nature as that used on the oldest, as well as the more modern, tempera pictures as a finishing coating to protect the tempera colours.
Oil Painting
The particular method of painting discovered and practised by the Van Eycks was not oil painting, in the modern sense of the term, but was really a form of varnish painting, where an oleo-resinous vehicle was employed as the medium in which the dry pigments were ground.
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