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Evolution Of Roof And Ceiling
As for the ceiling itself, we may, for our present purpose, take the term in its widest sense, coelum, the sky, or covering of the chamber, though technically the word is applied more particularly to the inner lining of a roof, and to the lining of the under part of a floor.
Ceilings Of The Ancients
SUCH knowledge as we possess of ancient Egyptian architecture relates chiefly to the temples and palaces. Flat stone slabs covered these buildings, vaulting apparently being reserved for narrow passages and occasionally some inner cell-like chamber.
The Byzantine And The Mauresque
IT is curious to see how Byzantine art arose. Naturally enough Byzantium, a colony on the confines of Europe and Asia, and the very gateway of a great East and West route, successively in the hands of the Megarians, Medes, Athenians, Spartans, Macedonians, and Romans, presenting a hot-bed for a composite art.
Pliny, mentioning the use of mosaics in Rome, says that Scylax first introduced stone-laid work about 80 B.C.
Gothic Ceilings
NORTHERN ITALY cradled the Romanesque style, whence sprang the Gothic. In that region of high alps and dense forests there arose during the period of strife and turmoil following the break-up of the Roman Empire a style of architecture which, retaining certain features of classic examples, developed along lines strongly influenced by local surroundings.
Renaissance Ceilings
In Italy, at the end of the fourteenth century, all was propitious for a great change. Puissant prelates, emulous courts and no less magnificent princes of commerce had long patronised art in no niggardly spirit.
Renaissance In England
Our first glimpse of Renaissance art we owe to Italianised ecclesiastics. Traces of their influence, chiefly in the way of wood carvings, are to be found associated with the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII.
Timber Roofs And Carved Wood Ceilings
TIMBER ceilings may be divided into three broad classes : (1) open timber roofs, such as we see in churches and large halls ; (2) ceilings with visible beams in conjunction with boarded or plastered surfaces ; (3) boarded ceilings, plain or decorated and those of carved wood.
Some Church Ceilings
VARIOUS phases of decoration for church ceilings and roofs have been dealt with at length in the preceding chapters, but several particular examples afford useful lessons for us, and so deserve detailed description.
Plaster Work And Ceilings
PLASTERING, if not as old as the hills, is, in its primitive type, at least as old as the first attempts of non-cave dwellers to build themselves weather-tight huts.
Early Pictorial Ceilings
WE have already dealt in general terms with the custom of painting ceilings, both with conventional patterns and finished pictures. As we have shown, probably the earliest attempts along this particular line of decoration were the representations of the ceilings as the firmament, with twinkling stars, to which were later added symbols of the Zodiac.
Pictorial Ceilings In England
ALTHOUGH we hear of mural painting in Medieval England, we have no evidence or pictorially decorated church vaults or palace ceilings such as we have in plenty in other European countries.
Ceilings And Present Day Practices
It is a most hopeful sign, this renewal of interest in the ceiling, even in modest houses for it reveals a revolt against the reign of ugliness introduced during the last couple of centuries.
Some Notes On Lighting
It is to be hoped that from these few notes it will be gathered that modern improvements in illumination should be studied from the aesthetic point of view, for it will then be seen that they can be enlisted as aids to the decorative treatment of interiors.
Millet's Drawings At The Museum Of Fine Arts, Boston
IT is no small cause for congratulation that Boston should possess so many original works by Jean-Francois Millet. With the exception of Paris, it is doubtful whether any other city holds more interesting examples of the art of the Barbizon master.
The Woodcuts Of Albrecht Altdorfer
Yet if Altdorfer, in his woodcuts, failed to reach the heights at times achieved by Durer and Holbein, he is nevertheless the only German who can aspire to be remembered with them, the qualities of his defects making of him not only the most charming and delightful of all German artists, but one of the great illustrators of all time.
Daumier's Lithographs
Corot and Delacroix, juxtaposed with Daumier, are amazing, but significant of Daumier's proper rank in French art during the July Monarchy and the Second Empire.
Daumier's Lithographs
Daumier, Robert MacaireRobert Macaire, the clever rogue above mentioned, and Bertrand, the stupid rogue, his friend, accomplice, butt, and scapegoat, on all occasions of danger.
Martin Schongauer
Schongauer's productions all breathe a nobility and a perception of beauty which place him among the very greatest masters of the graphic arts. Among his prints I should award the prize to Christ and the Magdalen; for here the contents of the composition have received an embodiment, the fervor, depth and delicacy of which have never been surpassed in art.
The Memoirs And Journal Of Jean Georges Wille
IN 1792 a Nurnberg print-seller asked Wille for his Memoirs. The then best-known engraver in Europe answered that he was neither vain nor ambitious enough to wish to see his story in print, but that if after his death any one cared to write a sketch of his life, he would find enough material in a Journal in which, if he (Wille) had shown some negligence, he had consistently told the truth.
J. Andre Smith
RARELY has a newcomer of so much promise and actual accomplishment as J. André Smith made his début more quietly. Fifty odd prints, which is the sum total of his achievement to date, present quite completely the progress of his art, from its tentative beginnings in 1909, when he had mastered some of the first principles of etching after a year of studious experimenting, to the present time.
Some French Etchers And Sonneteers
WRITING in 1862 of that revival of etching which his own appreciation of Meryon and other contemporary etchers did so much to promote, Charles Baudelaire expressed his belief that this art would never become really popular, although he admitted that he might be a bad prophet and hoped that he would prove so.
The Unconscious
To the majority of people, our conscious life appears as the most important, if not the only important, form of life. Most of our rules of behaviour, most of our judgments on human actions are based upon that estimate of our conscious life.
Body And Mind - An Indivisble Unit
Academic psychologists simplify their tasks by allotting the body to physiologists and occupying themselves exclusively with the mind. Applied psychology of the analytical type has been compelled to discard that arbitrary division of the human organism into mental and physical.
Nerves And Nervousness
Nerves, nervous and nervousness are terms which should be used less frequently and less carelessly. My nerves are on edge or I am a nervous wreck are picturesque expressions devoid of any meaning and which convey a very inaccurate picture of what is taking place in the organism.
Childhood Fixations
The seed of all mental disturbances is sown in our childhood years. Whether we hold with Freud that childhood memories, habits and repressions disturb our mental balance in later years, or assume with Adler that the neurotic adult simply draws upon his childhood memories for the woof of his fancies, the fact remains that one's childhood, directly or indirectly, determines the content and form of one's neurosis.
The Negative And The Positive Life
The positive human being aims at a goal which is ahead, in time and space, and perhaps at a higher level than the one on which he presently stands. He makes plans for a future of useful activity, of beneficial endeavour and of social cooperation. He expects to encounter problems and to solve them in his own way, perhaps in a novel way.
Speech And Memory Defects
The neurotic type in its negative attitude to life refuses to face unpleasant facts. It adopts the ostrich's tactics and buries its head in the sand. The most efficient way to flee from an unpleasant reality is not to know any longer that it was once perceived.
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