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Some Characteristics Of Sleep
In order that sufferers from sleeplessness may be able to rid themselves of their harassing infirmity, it is necessary that they should know something of the natural history of sleep and of the causes of insomnia.
Degrees And Varieties Of Insomnia
The causes of insomnia are countless, varying from an unkind word to a serious mental or bodily illness.
Theories And Phenomena Of Sleep
The problem that confronts the victim of insomnia is to determine why he does not sleep soundly, adequately or refreshingly.
Insomnia Due To Physical Causes
Insomnia is a symptom, not a disease. It is a derivative, a byproduct, the effect of definite causes, which must first be removed before any progress can be reasonably expected in the work of regaining sleep.
Insomnia Due To Mental Causes
In the majority of cases in which insomnia is directly traceable to absence of mental tranquillity, it will be found that in the earlier stages the wakefulness was deliberate and intentional.
Dreams And Sleep
Among the most common disturbances of sleep are dreams. This subconscious state is typical of the lighter stages of sleep, and in the vast majority of instances occurs just before waking.
The Requisite Quantity Of Sleep
No belief is more deeply rooted than that the average individual requires seven, eight or more hours of sleep. Like most firmly established popular conceptions, it is entirely unjustified.
Surroundings Conducive To Sleep
Some environments are contributory to slumber, peaceful and refreshing, just as others are provocative of wakefulness. One man, however, may sleep soundly in quarters and in an atmosphere that will move another to the most fundamental protest and rebellion.
Treatment Of Sleeplessness
Since the chief source from which insomnia flows has to do with a troubled mind, it follows that the most effective remedy is the restoration of tranquillity and the bringing of the mind under control.
Sleepless - Principal Curative Agencies
Insomnia associated with pain of what is commonly called a rheumatic nature, and insomnia accompanied by motor unrest commonly called fidgets is frequently relieved by a bath at the temperature of 102 to 108 degrees F., and of ten minutes duration.
Sleepless - Opiates And Narcotics
Insomnia cannot be cured by drugs. It can be cured only through the detection and eradication of its causes, by the utilisation of measures to develop strength, tone and vitality, and by the adoption and maintenance of a sane point of view.
Hypnotism And Suggestion
The simple procedure in inducing hypnotism is first, to obtain obedience from and engender faith in the person to be hypnotised.
Reading As A Soporific
For some insomniacs, Emerson's Essays and Poems have proved good night reading, and excellent as a mental tranquiliser. For this same reason, most of the ancient philosophers are excellent sleep-producers.
First Steps Towards Photography
It is claimed by the French that the first actual photograph was taken by Professor Charles, who, struck with the property possessed by silver salts to blacken in contact with light, made some interesting experiments in a course of lectures on physics delivered by him at the Louvre in 1780.
The Optics Of Photography
Photography is the joint child of optics and chemistry. All that has been discovered about the influence of light upon the salts of silver and analogous substances might have been known, and yet, without the dark chamber, the art of photography would have remained non-existent.
Wedgwood And Davy's Experiments In Photography
Nothing further appears to have been done in regard to photography until Thomas Wedgwood, a son of the famous potter, took up the subject, and succeeded in producing a photograph by making use of Scheele's observations on chloride of silver.
Niepce And Heliography
Although his name was for years eclipsed by another, there is no doubt that to Niepce belongs the largest share of the honour due for the invention of photography, or, as he called it, heliography.
Daguerre And His Photographic Discoveries
Abney has a theory that it was from the experiments with bitumen that Daguerre obtained his first idea of the photographic method that bears his name. The image formed by the asphalt on the silver plates was brown, the shadows being represented by the metallic surface.
Photography On Paper And On Glass
Besides the researches which led to his method of photography on glass, St. Victor, following Becquerel, devoted much time to the subject of colour photography, and succeeded in obtaining yellows, blues, reds, and greens, all very vivid, though equally evanescent.
The Camera And Lenses
The next improvement in the body of the camera was effected by the introduction of what is known as the bellows form in 1854. The credit of this contrivance is generally given to Captain Fowkes, R.E.
Photography - Lenses
Andrew Ross appears to have been the first to put a lens on the market that came approximately near to a solution of the difficulty of curvilinear distortion in a portrait-objective of two piano-convex achromatic lenses divided by a diaphragm.
Photography - The Introduction Of Collodion
The next important advance in the chemical department of photography, after the introduction of albumen on glass plates, was the invention of the collodion process.
The Gelatine-Bromide Process-Film Photography-The Hand Camera
As early as 1850 Poitevin—after Daguerre and the two Niepces perhaps the most fertile of the earlier French experimenters in photography, and one to whom the art-science owes a great deal—suggested the use of gelatine as a vehicle in place of collodion.
Photographic Printing Processes
It will be remembered that Niepce's attention was first turned to the problem of fixing the image of the camera obscura by his experiments in lithographic printing, and his earliest successes in photography were in the reproduction of engravings.
Photography And Letter-Press Printing
The negatives employed may be either negatives produced directly by photography, or they may be photographs of pages of letter-press printing. Or a negative may be used in which the two are combined.
Photo-Block Printing
A number of processes have been devised for applying photography to the production of blocks or plates, from which impressions may be taken by purely mechanical methods. These processes are of three kinds.
Photography - Recent Discoveries And Applications
It would be difficult to name a branch of science or industry that has not benefited from photography. During the sixty years that have elapsed since the announcement of the joint discovery of Niepce, Daguerre, and Fox-Talbot, light as chemist has not only broadened and deepened our sight, but has revealed to us wonder after wonder, secret after secret.
Color Photography
M. Lumiere, in 1907, devised a process in which a film is made sensitive to colours by the use of a potato starch dyed in three colours. Exposure is made as usual, but with the plate reversed, so that the light reaches the sensitive emulsion, first passing through the covering of coloured starch grains.
The Telegraph And Photography
The photograph to be transmitted may either be enamelled on a copper sheet, which is a rapid process, not taking more than five minutes, or prepared on the inventor's acrograph, or engraving machine.
Photography And Art
This question of the true rendering of a subject in monochrome is a very important one, and as it enters very deeply into the art side of photography, it has been thought well to reserve its treatment to this portion of the work.
Photography And Art II
No one will affirm today that photography has not benefited art, that it has not revealed truths of representation that were barely guessed at before, and that, in portraiture especially, it has helped to a lifelikeness which the artist's unaided effort could not have achieved.
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