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History And Details Of Rug Weaving
RUGS, in the house beautiful, impart richness and represent refinement. Their manufacture was one of the earliest incentives for the blending of colors in such harmony as to please the eye and satisfy the mind ; consequently, it is one of the most important of the industrial arts.
The Loom And Its Work
The power looms of modern civilization are chiefly to be found in the United States and Great Britain, Philadelphia being the principal American centre, and Kidderminster, Wilton, Worcester, Rochdale, Halifax, Dewsbury, and Durham, the English centres.
The Weavers
RUG-WEAVING in the Orient is an industry that, until recent years, has been carried on almost exclusively by women and girls. From childhood to womanhood, and on to old age, these weavers are at work.
The Materials - Rugs
THE materials used in the manufacture of rugs cover a wide range, and are indigenous to the place where the weavers are located. Sheep's wool, camel's hair, mohair from the Angora goat, hair from the yak and from the Thibetan goat, silk, cotton, linen, hemp, flax, and jute are all used.
The Quality
The most famous rugs of the Orient have been selected with great care by men who have special knowledge of the subject, and they are owned by museums and connoisseurs.
The Knotting
EXCEPT in the Soumak and the Khilim, which have the flat stitch, there are only two kinds of knotting used in Oriental rugs. These knots are called the Persian or Sinna, and the Turkish or Ghiordes.
Designs
THE designs of Eastern rugs are often the spontaneous outcome of the fancy of the weaver. Sometimes they are handed down from one generation to another ; in some cases young girls are taught the design by an adult, who marks it in the sand.
The Dyes
Today, painting a rug is quite a common procedure. Thousands of painted rugs are sold annually in the United States and other countries. The oil paint which is used is put on with an instrument somewhat resembling a fountain pen.
Oriental Colors
AMONG Orientals a good deal of significance has attached, from the earliest days, to color. In Babylon scarlet was the symbol of fire, blue of air, and purple of water.
Rug Weaving In Egypt, Persia And Turkey
THE supply of skins having been found inadequate to the gratification of their desire for comfort, the ancient Egyptians gradually developed the art of making mats from papyrus, a plant as important to them as any of our trees, fibrous grasses, or hemp are to us.
Persian Rugs
Tradition has it that long before the days of Alexander the Great, rugs were woven at Shuster, then the capital ; and being a luxury, they were woven solely for kings' palaces, and on the finest gold warp.
Characteristics Of Certain Persian Rugs
A fine Persian rug is valuable, even at the seat of manufacture. A small one, measuring three by four and a half feet, quite modern, but very fine and with splendid colors, has been sold at Teheran for eight hundred dollars.
Rug Weaving In Turkey
The Turkish Ministry of Commerce issued an order, effective June 1, 1926, that all rugs manufactured in Turkey and intended for export must have a small lead seal thereon, otherwise they will be prohibited from export.
Characteristics Of Certain Turkish Rugs
AKHISSAR rugs have a thick pile, and are loosely woven. Their colors are usually red and green. Rugs of mohair are made at Akhissar.
Rug Weaving In India, Afghanistan, Beluchistan, And Central Asia
THE manufacture of rugs was introduced into India by the Mohammedans at their first invasion in the beginning of the eleventh century.
Characteristics Of Certain Indian Rugs
The rug is of enormous size and weight, and the tree design is arranged in shades of exquisite blue upon a field of delicate fawn color. The border, in the same coloring, gives the most perfect harmony to the entire rug.
Afghanistan Rugs
AFGHANISTAN RUGS are usually large, the average size being about eight by eleven feet. They are made by Turkomans inhabiting that part of Afghanistan known as Afghan-Turkestan and, therefore, the rugs are sold under the name of Afghan-Turkomans.
Beluchistan Rugs
Some of the finest specimens are occasionally sold as blue Bokharas ; and people who imagine that they have purchased one of the latter are likely to find themselves the possessors of a good Beluch, for there is no such thing as a blue Bokhara.
Turkoman Rugs
TURKOMAN rugs are woven by nomad tribes living in Central Asia. The tribes are known as the Ersari GokIan, Sarik, Tekke, and Yomud, and most of these rugs have some points in common, although they vary a good deal in detail.
Characteristics Of Certain Turkoman Rugs
BESHIR rugs resemble in certain aspects the rugs of Afghanistan. The texture is similar, and the same rich blues and reds are seen ; a red webbing at the ends extends at some length, and has dark lines crossing it.
Caucasian Rugs
CAUCASUS is a general government belonging to Russia, and including Transcaucasia. The designs of the many rugs woven in this section of country are all parts of a system, and each design bears certain marks whereby its class may be identified.
Rugs Of The Holy Land
NO rugs of importance are woven in Palestine. In several villages a coarse cloth is made which is waterproof because of its firm texture. It is used for cloaks or abas, and these are worn by all the men of the land.
Chinese Rugs
Antique wool rugs woven in China are very scarce, and because of this, and for their historical interest as well as their uniqueness and attractiveness, they bring large prices.
Japanese Rugs
IN olden times woven rugs were not known in Japan. The wealthy classes of Japan covered their floors with grass, over which they spread the skins of animals. The poorer classes had not even skins, but only reeds or straw.
Khilim Rugs
In Oriental countries the Khilim is used as a floor covering, and also as a curtain to divide the dwelling portion of the tent from that in which the cattle are sheltered.
Polish Rugs
THERE are few of the so-called Polish rugs in existence, and these are priceless and cannot be bought. They are mostly seven feet long by four wide.
Prayer Rugs
THE prayer rug is so distinctly generic that it requires a little explanation. It is to be found wherever dwell the followers of Mohammed, and the design usually includes a representation of a mosque.
Silk Rugs
LONG before other countries learned the art of cultivating silkworms, China was at work weaving fabrics of silk.
Felt Rugs
IN the Orient a large and heavy rug is made of felt. This is used extensively by the natives, but is too heavy to export. Even the shepherds of the Kotan-Daria and of the Keriya-Daria use it in their primitive and isolated abodes.
Hunting Rugs
The hunting rugs of Persia are the most remarkable and interesting rugs known. They had their origin in the Chinese pictures of hunting scenes, from which the designs were copied.
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