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German Pottery
Germany's influence upon the development of the potteries of Europe was very great. She sent workmen direct into Holland, Flanders, Northern France, England, Denmark, Sweden, and even Portugal.
Holland Pottery
The earliest marks found upon pieces produced at Delft date from about 1600, a century and a half after the introduction of Chinese porcelain into Europe. It is best known by its copies of Chinese and Japanese porcelain.
France Pottery
Palissy was an author, an engineer, a geometrician, a naturalist, a philosopher, an artist, and a martyr. His potteries, original in design and execution, have been imitated and reproduced down to the present day.
Henri II Ware
The author and production of the seventy-two pieces called Henri II or Diane de Poitiers ware are still clouded in mystery, but everything tends to prove they are the production of several artists.
English Pottery
It was not until the last century that English potters made any progress in the artistic development of their productions. Previous to that time objects of common baked material for household uses alone had been made.
Dresden European Porcelain
The date and place of manufacture of the first true porcelain in Europe is very naturally a question of dispute. It has been claimed that about the year 1500, at Pesaro, in the Duchy of Urbino, porcelain was made.
Vienna European Porcelain
In 1718 Samuel Henzel went from Meissen to Vienna, and under the direction of a Belgian, Claude du Pasquier, established a factory of porcelain, which, in 1744, was purchased by Maria Theresa.
Sevres European Porcelain
Next in chronological order of the four Royal factories is Sevres. The two brothers Dubois, one a modeller, the other a painter, came in 1725 from the factory at St. Cloud to Chantilly, then under the patronage of the Prince de Conde, where they produced objects of pate-tendre.
Berlin European Porcelain
True porcelain, or, as it is often called, hard paste porcelain, is composed of petunse and kaolin with a kaolinic glaze. In baking it requires the highest temperature of a white heat to effect the proper junction between the particles of petunse, which never fuses, and the kaolin.
Besides the Imperial Academy of Fine Art, there are several important art organizations for the advancement of Japanese style of painting. They are the Nihon-Bijutsuin, or the Institute of Japanese Art, presided over by Yokoyama Taikwan, the SeiryŁ-sha founded by Kawabata Ryushi, etc.
Before the introduction of Buddhism, in the middle of the 6th century, Japanese sculpture seems to have been quite simple and archaic in its material and technique.
Industrial Arts
Industrial arts have much to do with the actual development of culture in any society, because they are so dosely related to the utility of arts in daily life.
Ceramic Arts
The ceramic arts of Japan made noteworthy progress after Toshiro came back from China in the 13th century, having spent 5 years there studying ceramic arts.
Lacquer Wares
The application of lacquer for useful objects has a long history in Japan. Even proto-historic pottery was coated with lacquer. In the 8th century lacquer was used for various useful objects of artistic merit.
Contemporary textile fabrics have made praiseworthy progress in designs, dyeing, and weaving. The most artistic are Nishijin, yuzen and embroidery, and the best of these are produced in Kyoto.
The development of metal-work has also a long history. Already in the proto-historic period, excellent work in armor, sword and bronze mirrors were produced, and a large number of fine examples are preserved in the Tokyo Imperial Household Museum.
In few other countries will be found so many historical buildings as in Japan ; and almost every age is represented by extant buildings of different types. However, most of them are Shinto and Buddhist buildings.
Shinto Architecture
Shinto architecture embodies the Japanese national spirit, the ancestor worship of Japan. The oldest primitive style of Shinto shrine is the Taisha-zukuri (the Great Shrine style).
Buddhist Architecture
On the whole Japanese Buddhist architecture is different according to different sects of Buddhism in its decoration and the arrangement of buildings. Among others the building of the Zen sect is after the Chinese style, while that of the Jodo sect is quite Japanese.
When tourists approach any such historical towns as Himeji, Osaka, or Nagoya, they are captivated by the imposing view of a white castle tower soaring, as it were, to the sky.
Dwelling Houses
Japanese dwelling-houses in the primitive periods were simple, as will be inferred from the architecture of Shinto shrines such as Taisha-zukuri and Shimmei-zukuri which are explained elsewhere.
Yamato, The Earliest Art Center
In old Japan there were five cultural centers, Yamato, Nara, Kyoto, Kamakura and Edo (present Tokyo). In each of these five places, which were simultaneously political centers, Japanese art made an epoch-making change and development.
Nara, The Second Art Center
During the sixth and seventh centuries, Japan acquired a large part of a new culture through the introduction of Buddhism. But her power was becoming dispersed. Each Emperor established his own court at a different place in or near the province of Yamato.
Kyoto, The Greatest Art Center
The introduction and imitation of things Chinese reached its climax in the eighth century, at the end of which people were satiated with them and keenly needed a change in life and art.
Kamajura And Tokyo As Centers Of Art
Historical Kamakura has become a popular summer resort where wealthy people live who are weary of city life and seek uninterrupted rest and peace.
In Nikko are two Shinto shrines, the Tosho-gu and the Futara-jinsha, as well as a Buddhist monastery, the Rinno-ji. Tosho-gu shrine is of world-wide fame, being the mausoleum of Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Itsukushima-Jinsha Of Miyajima
The Itsukushima-jinsha is situated on an island in a picturesque corner of the Inland Sea and can be reached by a ferry-boat in a quarter of an hour from Miyajima station.
Reiho-kwan Museum, Kongobu-ji And Other Temples On Mt. Koya
Koyasan, literally Plateau Mountain, was virgin land when it was selected by Kobo Daishi for the headquarters of the new Shingon sect that he founded at the beginning of the 9th century.
Chuson-ji Monastery Of Hiraizumi
Hiraizumi is the site of the aristocratic culture which was transplanted from Kyoto by Fujiwara Kiyohira and his successors, Motohira and Hidehira, who wielded supreme power over eastern Japan in the early 12th century.
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