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The Later Jacobean Period
The Jacobean work at the year 1620 was of a quaint and extremely picturesque character, but still rather meaningless, and more inclined to rely for effect upon its exuberance of ornament than upon any carefully thought out ideas of proportion or balance.
The Inigo Jones Period
Of the work of the period in existence today but little can be directly attributed to Inigo Jones himself. Many rooms commonly attributed to him were probably carried out by his followers, although it is likely it was from the master that the original inspiration came.
The Wren Period
Wren's position in the architectural world was rather peculiar. He was openly depreciated and secretly acknowledged as a great leader. In his earlier years he had shown a leaning towards scientific pursuits, and at an early age had won honours in scientific subjects.
The Early Georgian Period
Towards the end of the first quarter of the 18th century the Renaissance style, as thoroughly nationalised by Wren, began to decline in favour of a more purely Italian classical style.
The Late Georgian Period
An important development in the second half of the 18th century was the building of a vast number of town houses. They were erected for both noblemen and the well-to-do professional classes.
More About Doors And Doorways
A very common practice of the Elizabethan and Jacobean craftsmen was the use of various debased versions of the classic orders in their door casings.
More About Fireplaces
From the Elizabethan period and onwards, the fireplace was a subject of the first importance in the rooms.
More About Panelling
Wood panelling was employed from an early period, and was a form of wall covering essentially suited to the English climate, giving an atmosphere of warmth and homeliness.
More About Ceilings
Inigo Jones made very great use of plaster in his ceilings, but, like all his work, it was of a very different character from the contemporary treatment.
More About Staircases
From the Elizabethan period the staircase had been endowed with a degree of importance, and was the subject of the most elaborate treatment. As the 17th century progressed the arcaded balustrades were replaced by solid panels pierced through in the form of interlacing arabesque scrolls.
Of Spain In General
Various as are the objects worth observing in Spain, many of which are to be seen there only, it may be as well to mention what is not to be seen, for there is no such loss of time as finding this out oneself, after weary chase and wasted hour.
Just After The Apogee
Spain hath been always esteemed a country of ancient renown, and as it is incident to all others, she hath had her vicissitudes and turns of fortune. She hath been thrice overcome: by the Romans, by the Goths, and by the Moors.
Causes Of The Rapid Decline
Loyalty and superstition; reverence for their kings and reverence for their clergy, were the leading principles which influenced the Spanish mind, and governed the march of Spanish history.
The Spanish Rivers
There are six great rivers in Spain—the arteries which run between the seven mountain chains, the vertebre of the geological skeleton. These watersheds are each intersected in their extent by others on a minor scale, by valleys and indentations, in each of which runs its own stream.
So precisely must Toledo have looked, barring the electric light, when the last page of its intimate history was written. Just so brown and barren, with its front of unflinching austerity, its stern wealth of architecture, the air of romantic elegance and charmed slumber it breathes upon sadness, with its look of legendary musing and widowed remembrance.
The Toledo Cathedral
I went to Toledo in the pleasantest time of the year, the first days of June. The early harvest was in progress, and the sunny road ran through golden fields which were enlivened by the reapers gathering in their grain with shining sickles.
The Treasury Of The Toledo Cathedral
There is small space to dwell upon the incredible value of the church treasures, only shown at stated periods. Seven canons open the seven doors, each with a separate key.
The Alcazar
Toward evening I went to see the Alcazar. The name makes one hope for an Arabian palace; but there is nothing Arabian about it except its name; the edifice which one admires to-day was built under the reign of Charles V., on the ruins of a castle, which existed in the eighth century, altho only very vague indications of the fact are to be found in the chronicles of that period.
Roderick's Great Tournament
But the tale of the great tournament with which he started his disastrous reign, must be told at length as one of the most resplendent pages of courtly history.
The Day Of The Foss
As long as he lived, the Sultan did not dare to complain of the haughty and intolerable Toledans, but when he died, Hakam summoned up courage to address them as their sovereign, and try a policy of conciliation.
The Tagus, River Of Romance
The Tagus was always the great natural charm of the town. Like the Arno, it takes on every hue; some mornings just after dawn, it is the palest blue, again is a still sleepy jade.
The Sword Makers
The most interesting is that of Alvarez, the best maker of damascene. Murray's guide-book recommends travelers to purchase this famous Toledo work at the Fabrica de Armas, the Government enterprise.
The Gallery Of The Prado
I know of no place in the world where he could garner up so precious a store of memories for the days of darkness, memories that would haunt the soul with so divine a light of consolation, as in that graceful Palace of the Prado.
The Armory And The Naval Museum
The Madrid armory is one of the most complete in the world. As you enter the immense hall, your heart gives a leap, the blood surges through your veins, and you stand as motionless at the portal as one who has lost his reason.
Madrid - The Royal Palace
Considering its site, great size, and architectural merits, no royal palace in Europe can be said to rival the one in Madrid. In mere size, the Escorial, thirty miles away, is far larger, the Palace of Versailles called for a greater expenditure of money, and Windsor Castle has a site even nobler; but none of these combine the conditions which make the Spanish residence the most beautiful and imposing in Europe.
A Bull Fight
If the men were killed in bullfights, I should say nothing more than it serves them right. But, with the usual amount of justice meted out in this calculating world, they alone escape.
The Escorial
John Baptist of Toledo laid the corner-stone on an April day of 1563, and in the autumn of 1584 John of Herrera looked upon the finished work, so vast and so gloomy that it lay like an incubus upon the breast of earth.
The Royal Pantheon
The first impression of the royal tombs turned out to be far less gloomy and depressing than the immensity of the grim monastery above.
Cities Of Old Castile
Burgos can boast of its cathedral, which is one of the finest in the world; but, unfortunately, like all Gothic cathedrals, it is hemmed in by a number of ignoble structures, which prevent the eye from appreciating the general disposition of the building and seizing the whole mass at one glance.
Salamanca And Valladolid
Salamanca once possest twenty-five colleges, twenty-five churches, twenty-five convents, twenty-five professors and twenty-five arches of its bridge.
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