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Shoal Bay
Shoal Bay lies in that section of Virginia known as the Cradle of the Republic, just five miles from Smithfield on the Suffolk-Smithfield highway.
Old Fort Boykin
Old Fort Boykin, owned by Mrs. Herbert Greer, and located on the James River near Mogart's Beach about five miles from Smithfield, is one of the show places of Eastern Virginia.
Talbot Hall
Talbot Hall has been the plantation home of the Talbot family since 1800. The land appurtenant to this home was patented in 1650 to Wm. Langley as a body of 825 acres in consideration of his having imported sixteen persons into the colony.
Southern Virginia
The park is surrounded by a fine, stone wall. Unfortunately the garden, which was planted under Mrs. Bruce's supervision, was destroyed, only some shrubs and boxwood remaining.
Around The City Of Hills
The architecture of Staunton Hill is Gothic, with perfectly proportioned towers and battlements which well befitted the quasi-aristocratic conditions from which it sprang.
Lower Shenandoah Valley
An effort is in progress to convert this manse into a national shrine. Even though it is still a private home, thousands of tourists visit it every year.
The Challenge Of Distribution
THE IDEA that it costs too much to distribute goods and that modern methods of distribution are wasteful and inefficient has taken root in the public mind.
Trends In Production And Distribution
Although actual costs of distribution—or of production—cannot be measured prior to 1929, indirect evidence shows that the spectacular gains in production efficiency have not been duplicated in the field of distribution.
Specialized Areas Of Production
Specialized machine production usually is most advantageous in large plants. The manufacture of many articles formerly produced in almost every locality has now become highly concentrated in a few favorable areas.
Price Spreads In Distribution
THE CONSUMER who knows little about the processes of distribution is likely to blame the retailer or the middleman for what may seem to him an exorbitant price he has to pay.
Distribution Of Milk
Because of the local nature of the milk business, national figures on costs would be rather meaningless averages.
Distribution Of Cigatettes
Cigarettes are a standardized product illustrative of lower distribution costs than many other articles of popular consumption.
The Flow Of Goods Through Distribution Channels
ALTHOUGH THE primitive market dealt in many of the necessities of life, it was not the place to which most people went to obtain those necessities.
Measuring The Flow Of Commodities
The Chart, it should be emphasized, measures only the flow of movable tangible commodities from the point of origin to the point of final sale as commodities, and not the total volume of trade as the term is ordinarily used.
Sales Of Manufacturing Industries
Goods sold by manufacturers alone amounted to $69.6 billion, or more than three times the total value of goods from primary sources.
Distributors At Work
THE AGRARIAN family worked at production and distribution with-out distinguishing one process from the other.
Retail Distribution
A retail store transfers the ownership of commodities from the storekeeper to the household consumer.
Corporate Chain Stores
The chain store is by no means a recent development, even on the American continent. The Hudson's Bay Company, chartered in 1670, is probably the oldest chain system in America.
Super Markets
Super-markets of one form or another have been in operation for many years, but during the depression they experienced a rapid growth. Their history is somewhat like that of the chain stores.
Distribution Of Industrial Goods
The industrial market, it must be emphasized, does not apply to the large volume of goods bought by wholesalers or intermediaries and by retailers to be sold again in unchanged form.
Cost And Profits In Distribution
EARLIER CHAPTERS have discussed some of the reasons for the expanding role of distribution in our economic system and have de-scribed and measured the agencies engaged in distributing commodities.
Profits In Distribution
From the standpoint of the buyer what he pays for goods is their "cost" to him, although the price paid includes the profits as well as the operating expenses of the producers and distributors who supply the goods.
The Costs In Retailing
RETAILING IS the most costly part of the distribution process.
Chain Stores Versus Independents
It is more illuminating to compare operating costs of different types of stores dealing in foods, such as single-store independents, retailer-cooperatives, voluntary or corporate chains, or super-markets, than to compare expenses of food stores with those of furniture stores.
Wages As A Cost Factor
Wages and salaries are the largest single cost element in retailing.
Department Stores
The typical big-city department store is really a host of individual shops brought together under one roof and single management.
Retail Hardware Stores
A good deal of significant information is available on operating costs of hardware stores.
Cost Of Primary And Intermediate Distribution
ALTHOUGH RETAILING is the most costly single phase of distribution the total of costs incurred prior to this final stage is about twice as large as retailers' expenses in selling finished goods to consumers.
Cost Elements In Intermediate Trade
That selling expenses are a large factor in other lines than groceries and drugs is apparent from analysis of additional data.
Factors That Influence Costs
Having reviewed the comparative costs of various types of intermediaries in different lines of trade it may be of interest to consider some of the principal factors that influence costs.
The Costs Of Facilitating Agencies
DISTRIBUTION COSTS incurred by retailers, intermediary dealers and manufacturers include, in addition to the expenses of operating their own establishments, charges for a host of supplementary services.
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