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Advantages Of The U.S. For Manufacturing
Scarcely any product of agricultural, animal, or mineral industry is ready for the use of man until it has been reshaped or transformed in some way.
Food And Kindred Products
The food group of industries embraces the manufacture of all kinds of food products except liquors and beverages. Of the fourteen leading groups of American industries distinguished by the Census Bureau this is the most important.
Metallic Products
The transformation of metals into metallic products is one of the greatest of human achievements. In the most primitive times it was regarded as at least a semi-magical process, and the smith was both respected and feared, as being a magician.
Textiles
The textile industries include the manufacture of various fabrics, the conversion of these fabrics into articles for personal wear, and the making of textile products other than those for personal wear.
Lumber And Paper
The European colonists who began our national history were forced to start the business of lumbering at once. They had to build themselves shelter and they were obliged to clear land for cultivation.
Leather And Rubber
The leather industry in the American colonies began at an early date, and almost every village had its tannery.
Chemicals And Dyestuffs
The actual manufacture of dyestuffs started in this country early in the last century. There are records of dyes being made at Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1816, and in Philadelphia in 1834.
Electrical Machinery And Apparatus
Establishments engaged in manufacturing electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies are to be found in nearly all of our states, but the industry is highly developed and centralized in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Ohio.
Beginnings Of The American Transportation System
The earliest settlements had been made, of course, on the seaboard, and they were necessarily more or less isolated from one another because of the practical absence of means of communication, especially by land.
Turnpikes And Canals
Turnpike-building naturally drew with it bridge-building. In a great many cases the early bridges were built by corporations and were toll bridges.
Railroads
A few thousand miles of railway were built before 1850, and almost no new canal enterprises were undertaken after that date. The railway succeeds the canal, but for a time the two overlap.
Natural Waterways And The Merchant Marine
The two great natural waterways were the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence, the latter taken in connection with the Great Lakes. For over two centuries many events had conspired to increase the significance of these two water routes.
The Influence Of Transportation Upon American Industrial Development
From what has been said in preceding chapters it is clear enough that the industrial progress of any country depends very largely upon the degree of perfection attained by the transportation system.
International Competition For Industrial And Commercial Supremacy
All development, industrial or other, has always implied a struggle between competitors. If we controlled all the markets of the world, and there was nobody standing by ready to take advantage of us, we should have very little incitement to improve our system.
Marketing
The first step towards a real market was the fair. A real market is a rather permanent relation between buyers and sellers, whereas the fair was at first an occasional or intermittent relation of the same sort.
The Financing Of Industry And Development Of Corporations
In every new country capital is scarce. It takes a good while to develop a surplus of capital sufficient for embarkation upon industries much in advance of agriculture.
Labor Adjustments
In any new country the quantity of labor necessary to overcome the difficult pioneering conditions, so as to work on up to easier and more modern systems, is very great.
The Collection Manager And His Work
It has also been said that if a credit man could be found who was infallible there would be no need of a collection department. But the perfect credit man has yet to be discovered, and in the average business collecting is a dire necessity.
Credit And Collection Information
As already stated, there is no clear line of demarcation between the work of the credit man and that of the collection manager. Collections should begin in the credit department.
A Study Of Debtors
Debtors may be divided into four classes, each requiring different treatment.
Collection Systems
The efficiency of the collection department depends largely upon the adoption and intelligent use of some simple, practical system of handling its routine.
Collection System For Instalment Business
The whole system is merely a method of extending credit to the customer on the basis of a stated payment each week, month or quarter, as the case may be.
Collecting City Accounts
Accounts may be roughly divided into city accounts and out-of-town or outside accounts. City accounts as here considered are those located in the same city or town as the office of the concern to which the accounts are due.
Collecting Outside Accounts
Outside accounts are those not located in the same city or town as the collecting office. They must for the most part be collected by letter, as the expense of personal collection is—for the smaller accounts at least—prohibitive.
Credit And Collection Problems Of The Small Dealer
Credit must be given. But the dealer must remember that it is worse than useless to sell goods unless he is paid for them.
Collection Letters - General Considerations
Of all the letters the business man is called upon to write, the collection letter is perhaps the most difficult.
Collection Letters For Petty Accounts
It is obvious that a small account does not require the same treatment, and will not justify the trouble and expense, which are properly given to the collection of more substantial accounts.
Collection Letters For Larger Accounts
The larger the amount involved, the more care should the credit man exercise in extending credit.
Collection Letters For Installment Accounts
There need be no hesitation in asking for money due on instalment accounts. In fact it should be asked for as pointedly as possible, and, speaking generally, payment should be insisted upon when payment is due.
Collection Letters For Professional Accounts
The accounts considered in this chapter are those of the doctor, the lawyer, and other callings in which similar conditions are found.
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