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Trade And Scientific Factors
THE intimate relation of architecture to trade is dramatically illustrated in your own act of building a house.
Greek Factors
GRECIAN activities in architectural development grew on the foundations of philosophical and practical analysis of constructive work, which preceded them.
The First Great Transition - Classic
Rome's first taste of Greek culture came from the colonies, a fact that is distinctly perceptible to the student of her early architecture.
The Birth Of Christian Architecture
The first great need of the now controlling Christians was for places of worship, and to fill this need several of the basilicas, or law courts, were converted to the purpose, becoming thereby the basis for Christian church architecture of this day.
The Secon Great Transition - Romance Architecture
There was building of churches after the basilican order, of course, during the tenth century, but they were for the most part unimportant, and the reason is one of the curiosities of history.
Preparation For The Gothic
IN the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries of our era the people of northern France reached the world's high-water mark in architecture.
The Gothic
THE very basis of Gothic architecture, and its development, is the arch, and we must pause here at the beginning of a study of the arch to say something of the style in its essence.
Flamboyant Gothic
Moreover, marked changes; were taking place in the social fabric, change were taking place in the social fabric, changes in trade, in science, and in idealism, that must inevitably record themselves in contemporary architecture.
Renaissance Architecture
But the architecture of the earlier period remains, a perfect record of its creators. And here, for the first time in more than a thousand years, was a people equipped temperamentally and intellectually to appreciate it.
The Renaissance In France
THE story of the introduction of classcism into France is not one of scientific discovery, but rather of political ambition.
Francis I To Louis XVI
HERE the second period of Renaissance progress begins with the death of the energetic and beauty-loving Francis I. of the pointed nose, ending with Henry IV. (from 1547 to 1642) óninety-six years.
From Louis XVI To Modern France
During the reign of the fifteenth Louis there was license without restraint, and in the reign that followed a reaction came which expressed its protest in the architecture, giving us restraint without license.
Parallel Developments In England
ENGLAND'S architectural progress in the development of styles is dependent to a great extent on the creative power of the Franks.
The Georgian Period Of England
He was followed by John Gibbs, Sir John Vanburgh, Sir William Chambers, and others among the architects, and by Chippendale, Thomas Johnson, Grinling Gibbons, Sheraton, Hepplewhite, Pergolesi, and the brothers Adam among the allies.
The Georgian In America
A little further study will differentiate for you the English revival and the Italian revival, the Philadelphia Georgian and the Georgian of Boston or of Annapolis.
The American Decadence
Just after the war the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was founded. This was the first school of architecture in the United States, and it played an important part in advancing the cause of sound architecture.
Progress In Other Countries
Here was certainly the basic element for architectural creation, and yet we do not find it. Instead, we discover a period of imitation and copying.
The Architect And The Future
LITTLE has been said in this book concerning the individual, the architect, who has through the ages carried on and developed the laws of the language of building.
The Invention Of Printing
The art of printing with movable type was invented in Europe during the middle period of the fifteenth century.
The Importance of Printing
During the period when printing was invented there was a general desire for learning throughout Europe, and this invention, while it made books cheaper, also made it necessary to possess at least the ability to read.
Divisions of the Printing Industry
There are various types of shops in the printing industry, each of which specializes in a certain kind of work.
The Composing Room
The work in the modern composing room is divided among a number of persons, each one of whom performs a special job either by hand or with the aid of machines.
Entrance to the Trade
An eighth-grade education at least is required of every one who desires to be a compositor, but boys with a high-school education are usually given the preference.
The Development of the Printing Press
When the art of printing with movable or separate pieces of type was invented, not much attention was paid to the presses.
Types of Pressrooms and Presses
There are various kinds of pressrooms devoted to the process of printing from raised surfaces with the presses that have been developed for this purpose.
The Importance of the Pressroom
The pressroom is a necessary department in any complete printing plant. It receives the work that has been prepared in the composing-room, places it on the presses, and produces the printed articles.
Printing - Entrance to the Trade
Every pressman should have a good, general education. This should include a study of arithmetic as far as fractions and decimals to enable him to figure stock, compute weights of paper, and determine the relation between the speed of the press and the time required to do the work.
The Development of Lithography
Lithography is the art of putting writing or designs on stone with a greasy material, and of printing impressions of the writing or the designs on paper or any other substance.
The Organization of a Lithographing Plant
A lithographed product must go through a number of departments and operations before it can be sent to the customer as a completely finished article.
The Work in the Lithographing Plant
When a lithographic job is desired, the first thing required is a design which will fully represent the idea of the advertiser or the person who puts in the order.
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