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How Error And Fraud Are Prevented In Currency And Bonds
A description of the safeguards employed as protection while the currency is being manufactured will not be given here. This chapter will be confined to the description of the safeguards employed from the time completed currency reaches the Treasury from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to the point when it leaves the Treasury to go into public circulation.
Scope Of The Treasury Department
Receiving, paying, and accounting for the Treasury cash are the prime functions of the Treasurer's office, but a number of other functions of the Treasury Department are also under the directing authority of the Secretary of the Treasury.
Postwar Financing And The Budget
THE huge debt in which the nation found itself as a result of the Great War made it absolutely imperative that attention be given to reductions in the expense of running the Government.
Financing The Nation
Each of those services and some twenty other Treasury bureaus and divisions, as set forth in previous chapters, are under Treasury control, and the head of the department is responsible for the efficiency of their conduct.
Egyptian Sculpture - Part 1
The sculpture of the Egyptians was largely connected with the temple and the tomb. The temple was constructed as if it were the tomb or eternal dwelling-place of a divinity whose statue was concealed within a succession of closed halls.
Egyptian Sculpture - Part 2
In spite of wealth of materials and quantity of production, Egyptian sculpture changed so slowly that it is difficult to trace its history. From the very earliest dynasties we find a fully developed art.
Babylonian Sculpture
The power of the Babylonian fancy was never exercised in a more original manner than in the creation of sculptural types embodying their conceptions of these spirits of different and opposite order.
Assyrian Sculpture
The Assyrians were not by nature a literary or artistic people. They appropriated much from the older civilization of Babylonia, upon which they were at first largely dependent.
Persian Sculpture
In sculpture, however, the Assyro-Babylonian style was at first preserved in almost its original purity. Some subjects, such as the human-headed bulls and the king fighting monsters, were treated so much in the same style that they appear to be almost copies.
Hitttite Sculpture
Under the general term of Hittite we group the sculptures produced in the north of Syria and in a large part of Asia Minor, especially in that part adjacent to the Assyrian frontier and in Cappadocia.
Phoenician And Cypriote Sculpture
The three great names that are significant, therefore, in the development of Phoenician art and in the history of the Phoenicians as intermediaries between the East and the West are Sidon, Tyre, and Carthage.
Greek Sculpture - Part 1
Religion was a factor of prime importance in determining the character of Greek sculpture. Originally a worship of the powers of nature, it became under Greek mytho-poetic fancy a complicated system of polytheism.
Greek Sculpture - Part 2
Decorative sculpture in stone, as it appeared on the columns of the tomb of Atreus or the alabaster frieze from Tiryns or the ceiling of the tomb at Orchomenos, was a translation into stone of ornamental forms more commonly beaten from metal.
Greek Sculpture - Part 3
In the early part of the fifth century the technique of marble sculpture had been so far mastered as to permit much freer expression of individual character and sentiment.
Greek Sculpture - Part 4
The most distinguished sculptors of this century were Skopas, Praxiteles, and Lysippos, whose styles may be taken roughly as representative of the early, middle, and late portions of the century.
Italian And Etruscan Sculpture
Bronze, terracotta, stone, marble, and silver were used by the Italian and Etruscan sculptors. In bronze work the earliest reproductions are in repousse relief.
Roman Sculpture
It may seem at first singular that sculpture should have developed so late in Rome. The Etruscans to the north, and the Greek and Graeco-Italic cities to the south, practised it in profusion during the fourth and fifth centuries of Roman history.
Early Christian And Byzantine Sculpture
Sculpture, on the other hand, was not used either as a medium for teaching, as painting was, or, like architecture, as an aesthetic vehicle.
Mediaeval Sculpture In Italy
During the eleventh and twelfth centuries sculpture was the least important of the fine arts in Italy. The sterility of four centuries of figured compositions could not easily be broken.
Mediaeval Sculpture In France
In the Romanized portion of ancient Gaul, sculpture had followed the same style as in Italy during the fourth and fifth centuries. But the period that immediately followed the decay of early Christian sculpture was barren of works.
Mediaeval Sculpture In Germany
The development of Christian sculpture in Germany began only during the Carlovingian period, and it was even then confined almost exclusively to carving in ivory.
Renaissance Sculpture In Italy
The demand for sculpture in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries remained chiefly ecclesiastical. The exteriors of churches were decorated with sculptures.
Renaissance Sculpture In Italy - Part 2
The impulse given to Florentine sculpture by Andrea Pisano, Giotto, and Orcagna was strongly felt in the early portion of the fifteenth century.
Renaissance Sculpture In Italy - Part 3
Siena remained longer than Florence under the influence of Gothic art. Her most distinguished sculptor, Jacopo della Quercia (13711438), developed along the same path as Donatello.
Renaissance Sculpture In Italy - Part 4
The sixteenth century in Italy witnessed the emancipation of sculpture from both architecture and painting. Architecture now became more sculpturesque.
Renaissance Sculpture In France
The magnificent development of Romanesque and Gothic architecture, the glory of mediaeval France, was attended by a sculptural development of hardly inferior quality.
Renaissance Sculpture
The Renaissance, as a classic or Italian movement, made itself felt slowly in Germany. The Germans were sluggish in their appreciation of formal beauty.
Modern Sculpture
But as the democratic character of modern institutions increased, a reaction against aristocratic and classic sculpture became prevalent. A desire was felt for subjects more national in character.
Modern Sculpture In France
In France the Revolution at the close of the eighteenth century signified the substitution of democratic for aristocratic ideas and methods. This resulted in the destruction of many fine statues, but not of the sculptor's art.
Modern Sculpture In England
In England the churches, public squares, and private houses have continued a demand for monumental and portrait sculpture. The classic revival has made itself felt in English sculpture as well as in literature.
Modern Sculpture In America
Sculpture in America, if we except the works of native Indians and of the Aztecs, Mayas and Incas, as not properly within the scope of this volume, is the product of the present century.
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