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Lipids And Liver Disease
The normal liver contains about 4 per cent fat, the majority of which is phospholipid, the remainder being glycerides and cholesterol.
Lipids And Gallbladder Disease
Lipids have long been implicated in disease of the gall-bladder particularly in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis.
Mineral Nutrition
MOST of the 14 minerals which appear to be essential in human nutrition are widely distributed in foods and for many of them there is little danger that dietary deficiency will occur.
Water Intoxication
Water intoxication is a term which has been used in the past to describe a syndrome in which water is retained in the body in excess of electrolytes.
Sodium And Chloride
It has been customary to discuss the body requirements of sodium and chloride together. In view of current knowledge, it would seem desirable to discuss requirement of sodium separately.
Potassium is abundant in both plant and animal tissues and primary dietary deficiency is not observed.
In spite of extensive investigation of calcium metabolism, the most satisfactory level of calcium intake for growth or for maintenance in adult life is unknown.
The abundant supply of phosphorus in foods almost precludes the possibility of dietary deficiency occurring in man.
Magnesium is undoubtedly required for growth and maintenance but little is known about the quantitative need in man.
Sulfur is a constituent of all body cells being present in the sulfur-containing amino acids of proteins.
The role of copper in human nutrition remains obscure and the requirement is unknown. Studies in animals indicate that copper is necessary for the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin ring.
Cobalt is essential for the activity of certain enzymes and is an integral part of the vitamin B12 molecule.
The physiologic importance of iodine rests in its essentiality for the formation of the thyroid hormone which maintains control of energy metabolism through some unknown pathway.
Vitamin Nutrition - General Observations
IN MANY ways it is unfortunate that a number of the chemical substances which are dietary essentials have been grouped together in a single category designated vitamins.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A, an unsaturated alcohol, is supplied in the diet as the preformed vitamin, which is found only in animal tissues (especially liver, egg yolk, butter and cream), and as the pro-vitamin, carotene.
Vitamin B Complex
The vitamin B complex comprises a number of factors differing widely in chemical structure, most of which have been found to be essential in human nutrition.
Thiamine, or vitamin B,, is a water-soluble compound containing the thiazole and pyrimidine rings.
Riboflavin is a water-soluble, yellow pigment with green flourescence which is widely distributed in foods of both plant and animal origin.
Niacin deficiency in its classical form, pellagra, is en-countered chiefly in population groups in which corn furnishes the staple cereal of the diet.
Vitamin B6
Although vitamin B6 has been shown only recently to be essential in human nutrition, much information has accumulated as to its important role in metabolic processes.
Pantothenic Acid
Demonstration that pantothenic acid is essential in animal nutrition and elucidation of its vital role in metabolic processes makes it practically certain that this vitamin is essential in man.
Folic Acid
The folic acid group of substances has been shown to be essential for blood formation in man; presumably it is necessary for other important functions as demonstrated in several animal species.
Vitamin B12
The isolation of vitamin B12 and the demonstration that this substance is the anti-pernicious anemia factor of liver was an outstanding achievement.
Little is known about the importance of choline in human nutrition nor are methods available for the diagnosis of choline deficiency.
It seems most unlikely that spontaneous biotin deficiency will be observed in human subjects.
Little is known of the role of inositol in the nutrition of animals or man.
Ascorbic Acid
Scurvy was described with accuracy several centuries ago and satisfactory treatment was devised long before ascorbic acid was isolated.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D deficiency is rarely observed in adults and is becoming uncommon in infants due to the widespread use of dietary supplements in the early months of life.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E has not been shown unequivocally to be essential in human nutrition although evidence suggests that this is the case.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K is important in human nutrition but deficiency is rarely observed in the absence of some complicating disease except in the infant during the first ten days after birth.
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