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George Frederic Handel (1685-1750)
The history of music in the eighteenth century contains two names of great renown. Bach and Handel were born in the same year and in towns not far distant.
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
The Golden age of German instrumental music begins with Joseph Haydn. Born in Hungary, near the border of Austria, he inherited the characteristics of both countries.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Mozart came into the world at a time and in a place most unfavorable for his work. Poverty and hardship were his lot through life, but his writing bears no trace of the struggle.
Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1837)
In the year 1770, about the sixteenth of December, Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn, a little town in northern Germany.
The Romantic Composers
Early in the nineteenth century two movements made their appearance in German music (1) Romantic opera and (2) the German art song.
Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
Carl Maria von Weber was born in Prussia in the year 1786. His father was a wandering theatre director and the boy's early life was spent amid strange and often degrading scenes.
Franz Schubert
Franz Schubert was the virtual founder of the German Lied and was the first to make song the medium for every shade of personal feeling.
Development Of The Piano
Before taking up the group of Romantic piano composers we may well consider briefly the kind of instrument for which they wrote.
Robert Schumann (1810-1856)
Robert Schumann was born in Zwickau, Saxony, not far from Leipzig, in 1810. His parents desired him to become a lawyer and were so strongly opposed to his adopting music as a profession that he reluctantly abandoned the idea.
Mendelssohn (1809-1847)
Mendelssohn was one of the best balanced and most wholesome men in the list of composers. He possessed extraordinary talent rather than genius, and this should be kept in mind in attempting, a criticism of his work.
Frederic Chopin (1809-1849)
Frederic Chopin, the 'Poet of the Piano,' has exerted a more subtle influence upon his art than any other writer of instrumental music.
Programme Music
The final outcome of the Romantic movement in music was the establishment of the 'programme' school.
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
The most original composer of the romantic school is Hector Berlioz. Although his compositions are seldom heard today, he has exerted a powerful influence upon musical criticism.
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
Franz Liszt was born near Oedenburg, in Hungary, on October 22, 1811. His father was a Hungarian in the employ of Count Esterhazy.
Famous Operas And Their Composers
Generally speaking, it may be said that Italian opera is distinguished by its beauty of melody and regular form, the French by its piquancy of text and treatment, the German by its more complicated form.
Italian Opera
In Italy opera rose out of the mystery play, and recitative - or musical declamation - first appeared in that branch of dramatic music called oratorio.
French Opera
Opera was not introduced into France until the middle of the seventeenth century and was, from the first, quite independent of Italian influences.
German Opera
It was not until the early part of the nineteenth century that Germany created a form of opera that was worthy of comparison with the musical drama of Italy and France.
Wagner And His Music Dramas
The study of Richard Wagner-his purposes, his conceptions as poet, dramatist and musician-is the most difficult in all the history of music.
Lohengrin
Lohengrin is the most popular of Wagner's operas. The scene is laid in Germany, near Antwerp; time, the tenth century.
Tristan And Isolde
In despair and grief, Isolde resolves to poison herself and Tristan, and prepares a poisonous draught.
Early Church Music
In the very nature of the case a new spirit was needed in the art of music when it came to be employed in the ministry of the Christian religion, for a new motive had entered religious consciousness.
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