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Old And Sold Antiques Digest Article


CREAMWARE PATTERNS

Creamware was first made in raised patterns of basket weave and in pierced and perforated leaf and diamond and rice-grain designs similar to those on the earlier salt glaze. Shellwork, fluting, and raised beaded borders were also used. Wedgwood made some of the finest pierced creamware. Edges and rims were embossed with ridges, lines, gadroon, and featherwork. The more elaborate pieces such as pierced fruit baskets, centerpieces, candelabra and candlesticks were fluted, scalloped, and decorated with festoons and other raised decoration as well as pierced patterns. The pierced creamware of Leeds is considered as fine as or finer than that of Wedgwood. The perforations are made by hand and the hearts, diamonds, ovals, and squares are more interesting than the perforations on Wedgwood's pieces, but Wedgwood pieces usually have a finer shape and the glaze is creamy, while Leeds has the characteristic greenish glaze. Leeds melon-shaped dishes are especialy fine, as are the candlesticks, cruets, and chestnut dishes.

Although the catalogue of the Castleford Pottery illustrates shapes similar to those of Wedgwood and Leeds, the products of the Castleford Pottery were cruder in workmanship than those of either Wedgwood or Leeds. When marked they are impressed "D.D. & Co. Castleford" or "D.D. & Co" with "Castleford Pottery" impressed below.

Centerpieces, chestnut, and fruit bowls of pierced creamware are rare and expensive. Plates and pepper pots, however, are available and within the price range of the average collector.

In 1756, John Sadler of Liverpool applied transfer printing to Liverpool Delft tiles and other Liverpool ware, and by 1765 Wedgwood was sending his Queensware for Sadler to print. At first the designs were printed in black and were similar to the fable designs printed on tiles. Landscape scenes and ruins were also printed in black; the familiar teaparty scene in a garden was printed in red; and the pheasant designs were printed in purple and black. The borders were molded or impressed and often a flower border or a swag was painted by hand in addition to the transfer. By 1784 Wedgwood had his own transfers printed at Etruria, and by 1795 the designs were more realistic and lost much of the charm of the old designs.

Similar designs of transfer printing was also done by Sadler and Green for Leeds Pottery.

Adams also made transfer-printed creamware with openwork edges and perforations in about 1780. The mark is "Adams & Co" impressed. Swansea creamware was printed in black, blue, green, or purple transfer designs. The earliest designs were of oriental inspiration, but later a series of transfer ship designs were made.

Richard Frank and Joseph Ring of Bristol employed a workman from Staffordshire to assist in the manufacture of creamware, and in the Bristol newspaper of 1786 an advertisement read: "Joseph Ring takes this oppor tunity to inform merchants and others that he has established a manufactory of Queen's and other earthenware which he will sell at low terms Wholesale and Retail as any of the best manufactories in Staffordshire can render same to Bristol."

Ring's son carried on the business with Henry Carter, and in 1802 an advertisement read: "Bristol Pottery, Temple Banks, Henry Carter, manufacturer of Blue Printed, Enamelled Table services. Blue, Green, and Coloured Edges, Painted and Cream coloured wares."

This factory employed 100 workmen and supplied foreign markets and made "table and Dessert service enamelled with Arms, Crests, and Cyphers." In 1813 the firm name was Carter, Ring & Pountney, and they made "painted, printed, enamelled and cream coloured earthenware." In 1821 they were making imitations of Etruscan ware, and from 1816 to about 1830, when the firm name was Pountney & Allies, William Fifield was employed as a painter and painted creamware with floral designs and dates.

Queensware was also made in Liverpool in 1773 at Okill & Company and later the Etruscan decoration was used. From about 1783 through 1830, the popular black-transfer bowls, mugs, and jugs with American patriotic designs were made. These included portraits of Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, John Adams, John Hancock, and others, battle scenes of the War of 1812, the Death of General Wolfe, early sailing ships, political cartoons, and Masonic emblems. Transfer prints of the tea party, garden scene and jugs with Farmer's Arms are early. Transfers were also made with Liverpool views, Duke of York, and "Tar's Return." This ware is popular with present-day collectors, and for this reason it is more expensive than some of the earlier creamware.

Wedgwood Queensware was also painted to order with crests and other heraldic devices, together with borders of classic inspiration. However, as early as 1763 Queensware with hand-painted borders copied from Greek and Etruscan vases and reliefs, such as meander, dart and tongue, helix, and ivy, laurel, myrtle, vines, and other naturalistic designs, was available to the average purchaser. Designs for hand-painted borders included calico, purple flower, shagreen, sprig, green husk, purple laurel, Etruscan, and green fern leaf. In 1769 fifty dinner services of Queensware were sent to Amsterdam in one cargo. The Pennsylvania Packet, January 23, 1771, advertises "Queen's Ware-Feather edged oval dishes in sets." In the Pennsylvania Chronicle, September 26, 1772, a notice reads, "A large and general assortment of enamelled and plain Queen's Ware," and in the Pennsylvania Evening Post of July 11, 1776, the notice reads, "Enamelled, striped, fluted, pierced and plain Queen's Ware teapots, sugar dishes and bowls of several sizes, and plain, gilt, fluted and enamelled Queen's Ware coffee pots of the urn shape."

In 1774 the list of Wedgwood Queensware patterns included a printed bird pattern with feather edge, and the following hand-painted border patterns: oat, arrow, green flowers, green husks, strawberry leaf, black flowers, blue shell edge, ivy border with sprigs, purple arrowheads, purple antique, Etruscan red and black, Etruscan green and black, marine pattern with purple edge, calico pattern and sprigs, green double lines, brown double lines, laurel border, black antique music, Greek border, enameled shagreen, Queen's pattern, red birds, green feather edge and flower, purple flowers, and green oat-leaf border. Wedgwood made up pattern boxes of the plates which we assume had proved the most popular. In 1775 the box included purple or blue antique border, grape border, purple shell edge, green feather edge, purple flower, laurel border purple, and blue ivy pattern.



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