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HISTORY. The hard paste porcelain factory of Frankenthal was established in 1755 by Paul Antoine Hannong, under the patronage of the Elector Palatine, Carl Theodor. In the account of French Chinaware we have already noted the circumstances that led to Hannong's removal from Strasburg where he had previously made hard paste porcelain.

Excellent china was made at Frankenthal, but there were financial difficulties and in 1762 the Elector bought the factory and continued the work under capable direc tors. Despite the high character of the products, the manufacture was not a success from a commercial point of view and the factory was at last closed in 1795.

THE BODY. The body at first shewed a slightly greyish tinge, but the paste was soon brought to a state of technical perfection in its whiteness and in all the other qualities that enter into the question.

THE GLAZE. The glaze likewise was technically perfect and of brilliant quality.

ARTICLES MADE AND CONTOUR. Table services of all sorts, tea, coffee and chocolate services, and all manner of decorative accessories were produced, and great stress was laid upon making the finest groups, figures and statuettes, glazed and in biscuit.

The work of Sevres and Vienna to a great extent furnished models for emulation and the sequence of Rococo and Neo-Classic contours disclosed more or less resemblance to the individual interpretations of those factories.

TYPES OF DECORATION. Both the painted decoration and the gilding were of exceptionally fine character, and there was a remarkably full palette of colors in use. A deep royal blue ground color, in imitation of the Sevres bleu du roi, was highly favoured, and raised gilding, in the manner of Vienna, was successfully executed. A good underglaze black was also employed. Landscapes, figures, cameo subjects in medallions, landscapes in monochrome and polychrome, Classic subjects, birds and flowers in many manners supplied the motifs.

THE MARKS. The earlier pieces are marked with the crowned lion rampant of the Palatinate and the initials of Hannong (J'. A. H.) in monogram. Later pieces bear the cypher of Carl Theodor surmounted bv a crown.

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