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COALPORT CHINA - (1780-1790) TO PRESENT DAY
HISTORY. In 1780, John Rose, who had been trained at Caughley, established a small porcelain factory at Jackfield nearby. In 1790 he moved his establishment to Coalport, a mile farther down the Severn, and in 1799 bought the Caughley factory. The business from the first prospered exceedingly and, after Rose's death in 1841, was continued by his nephew. After 1875 the establishment was acquired by a company and the business was carried on upon the old site by the Coalport China Company.
THE BODY. The body was white and highly translucent and in every way very similar to the Caughley paste.
THE GLAZE. The Coalport glaze was of especially excellent quality. It had a felspathic basis, like the glaze of hard paste porcelain, but fused at a much lower temperature owing to the use of silicate of soda and potash and a large percentage of borax. When the enamel colors were fired on this glaze they readily fused with it and sank into it so that the mellow effect produced was similar to that of the softer lead glazes on the old soft paste porcelain.
ARTICLES MADE AND CONTOUR. The chief product of the Coalport factory was tableware along with the usual decorative accessories of an average type, although to some extent the more ambitious creations of Sevres, Dresden and Chelsea were copied in the form of vases and other cabinet pieces.n contour the Coalport productions in large measure followed the Caughley patterns, but also made direct imitations of the pieces produced at Sevres and Dresden. Neo-Classic and, later, Neo-Grec impulses were plainly reflected in many of the shapes used.
TYPES OF DECORATION. Besides continuing the Caughley manner of decorating, and emulating the manners of Sevres and Dresden, painters from Worcester, Derby and the Staffordshire potteries were employed and these men brought with them all the current styles of those places. The deep Mazarine blue ground colour, so famous at Derby, was reproduced at Coalport and many other ground colors were also used, especially pink, apple green, claret, a bright canary yellow, and grey, while a fine rose Pompadour was particularly esteemed. In the reserved panels with the ground colours, and also on china without ground colours, the widest variety of decorations were employed , including all manner of floral subjects , garlands, festoons, wreaths, landscapes, figures, gaily feathered birds , and heraldic devices. Of common occurrencelq were basket borders with small flowers, birds and insects, in the Dresden manner; "Swansea roses"; the Brosely dragon in green as well as in blue; the "Bourbon sprig" or cornflower; blue underglaze flowers and sprigs in the old Chantilly fashion; the "worm sprig" pattern in underglaze blue; designs drawn from the Chinese famille rose porcelain; flowers, fruit, game and fish naturalistically painted; and moulded patterns in low relief as well as flowers modelled in high relief and colored. After the Nantgarw factory was discontinued Billingsley migrated to Coalport and continued to paint his well-known roses and other exquisite flowers until the time of his death in 1828. During Rose's lifetime the factory was noted for its elaborate vases embellished with well painted pictures set in panels.
THE MARKS. On early pieces occurs the mark "Coalport." Later, the marks vary. We find "Coalport," "JOHN ROSE & CO., COLEBROOKDALE,""C.B. D.," and "C. D." On some later pieces C and S are combined and in the bows are the small letters C, S and N, for Caughley, Swansea and Nantgarw, the factories absorbed by Coalport.